Foundational Courses

1.CGS-101: Foundational course in Gender Studies
Course Objectives: 
  • To familiarize students to with an in depth history of gender studies as an academic discipline in Pakistan, South Asia and in the West.
  • To familiarize students with the classical and contemporary debates within gender studies.
  • To identify main contours of gender studies, its branches and emerging debates within the discipline.

Course description:

The course will cover basic concepts in gender studies scholarship such as gender, patriarchy, feminism, women’s experience, gender construction, gender role ideology and gender inequality etc. This course will familiarize students with key tenets, contemporary debates and emerging issues in Gender Studies. It will trace the history of the discipline as it emerged in the West, as well as its emergence in Pakistan and the larger region of South Asia. Students will be introduced to the discipline and its distinguishing features, both in content and pedagogy. Through exposure to the former and current debates present in academic texts, interactive and experiential learning, this course will be a foundational course in key concepts and the educational philosophy of Gender Studies.

It will explore how gender manifests itself across cultures in social, cultural, legal, economic and political arenas. The course will discuss the sociology of knowledge production and theories/debates surrounding the status of women/gender studies as an academic discipline.

Another significant aspect of the course will be to review the status of women’s/gender studies in Pakistan and the issues/challenges at societal and institutional levels face by the discipline. The need for women’s studies and its linkages with other traditional disciplines will also be explored. The integration/autonomy debates of women’s studies in the academic context of Pakistan will be examined in detail.

Course Contents:

  • Introduction to foundational concepts in gender studies (gender, feminism, patriarchy)
  • Understanding the importance of pedagogies and educational philosophy.
  • History of gender studies as an academic discipline in the West
  • Locating the emergence of Gender Studies in the context of ‘waves’ of feminism.
  • History and development of Gender Studies as an academic discipline in Pakistan.
  • Integration versus autonomy debates in Gender Studies
  • Challenges for Gender Studies in Pakistan and globally.

Recommended Readings:

  • Aftab, Tahera. (2003). Triangular Linkages between Women's Studies Centers. Technology and Development , 2, 279-304.
  • Beauvoir, S. d. (1974). The Second Sex. New York: Vintage Books.
  • Bhadra, C. (1995). Women's Studies in Nepal: Context, Concept and Content. Pakistan Journal of Women's Studies , 35-57.
  • Bowles, G. and Renate, K. (1983). Theories of Women's Studies. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  • S (ed) (2004), Encyclopaedia of Women’s Studies, Cosmo, New Delhi
  • Cranny-Francis, An (2003), Gender Studies, Terms and Debates, Palgrave McMillan, New York.
  • Francis-Cranny, A. (2003). Gender Studies: Terms and debates. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Grewal, Inderpal, Caren Kaplan (2005), Introduction to Women’s Studies, McGraw-Hill, New York
  • Hobson, B.; Lewis, J. & Siims, B. (2002) Contested Concepts in Gender and Social Politics. Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Kaplan, I. G. (2006). An Introduction to Women's Studies: Gender in a Transnational World. Boston: Mc-Graw-Hill Higher Education.
  • Kathy Davis, M. E. (2006). Handbook of Gender and Women's Studies. London: Sage.
  • Lorber, Judith (2007), Sociology of Gender, Oxford University Press, Oxford
  • Marchbank, Jennifer (2007), Introduction to Gender, Longman, Boston
  • Menon, N. (2012) Seeing Like A Feminist. Delhi: Penguin Books, India.
  • Picher, J. and Whelehan, I. (2017) 50 Key Concepts in Gender Studies. Virginia: SAGE. (First published 2004).
  • Richardson, D. and Robinson, V. (eds.) (2015). Introducing Women’s and Gender Studies. Macmillan.
  • Richardson, Diane (1993), Introduction to Women’s Studies, Guilford Press, New York
  • Robinson, Victoria, and Diane Richardson. 2008. Introducing gender and women's studies. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: PalgraveMacmillan.
  • Suryakumari, A (1993), Women’s Studies: An Emerging Academic Discipline, Gyan, New Delhi
  • Vivar, M.T.H. (2016) Framing Intersectionality: Debates on a multi-faceted debate in Gender Studies. New York: Routledge.
  • Zaidi, S. A. (2003) The State of the Social Sciences in Pakistan: Vol. 2. Social Sciences in Pakistan in the 1990s. Islamabad: Council of Social Sciences.
2.CGS-102: Feminism: Theory and Practice

Course Objectives: 

  • To introduce students to the key concepts of feminism while focusing on the diverse schools of thought and waves of feminism in the world.
  • To contextualize feminist theory in Pakistan and also highlight feminist politics and women’s movements in South Asia and Pakistan in particular.
  • To focus on the development and evolution of feminism in Pakistan and its interaction with feminist research methods.

Course Description:

This course is designed to introduce students to the theories of feminism including liberal, radical, Marxist, psychoanalytical, standpoint, and intersectional schools of thought. Classic texts of feminism will be introduced in order to make students familiar with the philosophical foundations of this course. Special focus will be made on developing the analytical and critical skills of students through which they can apply these concepts in the context of Pakistan. The course is designed to trace the history of feminist thought and action in the world and also to see women’s struggle for their rights through different women’s movements. The main emphasis of the course will be to bridge the gap between theory and action and see how feminism and women’s movements are connected.

The course will approach major theories of feminism that would include liberal, Marxist/socialist, radical, psychoanalytical, post-modern, third world and global feminism(s). In order to understand the philosophical content of these theories, a special focus will be given on the historical context of these perspectives along with the waves of feminism. These waves of feminism will be examined in order to historicize the whole process. Similarly, the intersection of feminist theories with feminist practice will also be considered in the form of women’s movements with a special focus on such endeavors in Pakistan.

Course Contents:

  • Introduction to theory and epistemology of knowledge; significance/purpose of theories
  • Understanding about feminism: Historical development and Theoretical foundations
  • An overview of women’s movements and their relation with feminist theories
  • Understanding the categories of ‘woman’ and ‘gender’
  • Mapping the history of feminist struggles and women’s movement in the West
  • Mapping the history of feminist struggles and women’s movements in the rest of the world
  • Uncover different waves of feminism; their origins, evolution, challenges, and success
  • Discuss all brands/theories of feminism: Liberal, radical, Marxist, cultural, psychoanalytical, Third World, black, queer, etc.
  • Role of feminism and the women’s movement in Pakistan
  • Contemporary debates and issues in feminist theory and practice

Recommended Readings:

  • Beauvoir, S. D. (1953). The Second Sex. London: Everyman's Library.
  • Hooks, B. (2000). Feminism for everybody: Passionate Politics. Newyork: artvillie.
  • Mahmood, S. (2004). Pious formations: the Islamic revival and subject of Feminism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Millet, K. (1968). Sexual Politics. Champaign: University of Illinois Press.
  • Mohanty, C. T. (2006). Feminism without borders, decolonizing theory, practicing solidarity. Duke: UP.
  • Okaley, A. (1983). Sex, Gender and Society. Hampshire: Gower.
  • Pilcher, J., & Whelehan, I. (2004). Fifty Key Concepts in Gender Studies. London: SAGE.
  • Scholz, S. J. (2013). Feminism: a beginners guide. London: OneWorld Publications.
  • Tong, R. (2014). Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction. New York: Westview Press.
  • Zia, A. S. (2018). Faith and Feminism in Pakistan: Religious agency or secular autonomy? Sussex: Sussex Academic Press.
3.CGS-103: Status of Women in Pakistan

Course Objectives: 

  • To analyse the status of women in Pakistan with a cross-sectorial approach
  • To contextualize women’s status in Pakistan using statistical data produced in the public and private sector
  • To equip students with critical thinking for analysing the status of women in Pakistan

Course Description:

This course will be aimed at identifying, highlighting, and analysing the status of women in Pakistan. This course will be based on critical analysis of different sectors including politics, health, education and economy in formulating the status of women in the country. Moreover, this course will help students to analyse statistical data for situational analysis of women in different sectors across Pakistan.

Further, this course will also shed light on the diversified role of women in public and private sector institutions and the processes that determine the role and status of women in Pakistan. The role of culture, religion and law will be discussed to understand the social standing of women. This course will deal with some practical tools including the concept note for developing a research idea based on women’s position in society. Additionally, this course will also be discussing the national types of machinery which are held responsible for uplifting the social status of women in Pakistan

Course Contents:

  • Overview of women status in Pakistan
  • Fact sheet for situational analysis of women’s status in Pakistan
  • Women and Economic Empowerment
  • National Machinery for Women’s Rights
  • Women and primary health care
  • Women in Politics
  • Women in the Public Sector
  • Status of Women in Education

Recommended Readings: 

  • Bari, F. (2010). Women Parliamentarians. Gender, Technology and Development , 363-384.
  • Chauhan, K. (2014). Gender Inequality in the Public Sector in Pakistan: Representation and Distribution of Resources.S.A: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Fleschenberg, A. A. (2009). The Gender Face of Asian Politics . Islamabad: Oxford University Press.
  • Jamal, A. (2012). Global Discourses, Situated traditions, and Muslim Women's Agency in Pakistan. In A. L. Lukose, South Asian Feminsims. London: Duke Univeristy press.
  • weisss, A. (2014). Interpreting Islam,Modernity and Women's Right in Pakistan. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • National Comission on Sttus of Women, U. W. (2016). Women Economci Partiicaption and Empowerment in Pakistan . Islamabad: Centre for Policy adn Gender Studies .
  • Orgnization, W. H. (2010). Gender,Women and Priamry Health Care Renewal ;a discussion paper. World Health Organization .
  • Ozyegin, G. (2016). Gender and Sexualities in Muslim Cultures . Newyork: Routledge.
  • Patel, R. (2010). Gedner Equality and Women's Empowerment in pakistan . Karachi: OXford univeristy press .
  • Zafar, F. (1991). Finding our Way:Reading on Women in Pakistan . Lahore: ASR Publications .
4.CGS-104: Social Construction of Gender

Course Objectives: 

  • To introduce the concept of gender as a social category and processes through which it is being constructed.
  • To analyze various aspects of the social construction of gender in the context of Pakistan.
  • To critically evaluate different approaches, theories and worldviews related to gender as a concept.

Course description:

Gender as a social category represents the process of socialization, actors involved and other aspects involved in it. Men, women and other gender(s) are the product of society developed over a period of time. It is not a fixed category and changes with the passage of time. Gender expression, gender identity and sexual orientation are also some of the fundamental aspects of gender. The construction of gender constitutes different actors involved from the very basic level of family till the society at large. Similarly, language, culture, traditions, religion and history all play their role in the construction of gender.

The course will offer not only different theoretical explanations of social construction of gender but also social aspects of this identity. Special attention will be given to equip students with critical understanding of gender and its usage as an analytical category. This course will describe the core concept of gender as a social identity. It will inspect the way cultures, ideologies and other related institutions including family, community, state assist in the construction of gender identities and sexuality. It will also observe the process of learning of gender identity by individuals. Various theoretical explanations of gender construction will also be examined with respect to Pakistan’s culture and society.

Course contents:

  • Introduction to basic concepts: Gender and sex differentiation and debates
  • Historicizing constructionism: what is social construction? The historical debates.
  • Theorizing gender: various theoretical approaches of understanding gender
  • Problematizing category of gender through various lens: historical, political, social, religious and economic
  • Capitalist world structure and construction of gender
  • Linguistic analysis of gender and its contribution in gender construction
  • Social construction of gender: individual, societal, state and global
  • Social construction of gender: role of media and arts

Recommended readings:

  • Butler, J. (1990). Gender Trouble: Feminism and subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge.
  • Connell, R. W. (1997). Gender and Power. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Fausto-Sterling, A. (2012). Sex/Gender: Biology in a Social world. London: Routledge.
  • Fernendas, L. (2014). Routledge handbook of Gender in South Asia. New York: Routledge.
  • Giddens, A. (2006). The social construction of gender and sex. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Lorber, J. (1990). Social Construction of Gender. London: SAGE publications.
  • Menon, N. (2012). Seeing like a feminist. New Dehli: Penguin India.
  • Pilcher, J., & Whelehan, I. (2004). 50 key concepts in Gender Studies. London: SAGE publications.
  • Seidmen, S. (2015). Social constructionism, sociology, history and philosophy: Social construction of sexuality. New York: Library of Congress.
  • Spade, J. Z., & Valentine, K. J. (2013). The Kaleidoscope of gender: Prisms, Patterns and Possibilities. London: SAGE publications.
5.CGS-105: Women and the Feminist Movements: A global perspective

Course Objectives: 

  • Understand factors depriving women of their rights
  • Analyse feminist struggle for the restoration of women’s rights
  • Map the global networking of women in search of new paradigms for gender equity

Course Description:

This course will help the students to critically analyse the different concepts and thoughts of feminism. It also traces the history of feminist movements and women’s movements in the global context in general and in the context of the sub-continent in particular. It explores the factors that led to these movements and takes into account the paradigm shift from purely feminist perspectives to the concept of gender taking the centre stage.

Course Contents:

Historical perspective on women’s movements

  • America and Europe
  • Middle East
  • Africa
  • Asia

Beginning of Feminist Consciousness

  • Westernization
  • Colonialism, Imperialism, Neo-Colonialism
  • Impact on women’s lives

Feminist Movements

  • Early years of the Feminist Movements 1750 – 1870
  • The golden years 1870 – 1920
  • Intermission 1929 – 1960
  • Modern movements – 1960 – 1975
  • Contemporary Movements

 World Conferences on Women as a Milestone of Modern Movements

  • Beijing Conferences
  • Pakistani scenario

Recommended Readings: 

  • Ali, Suki, Kelly Coate, and WangũiwaGoro. (2000). Global feminist politics: identities in a changing world. London: Routledge.
  • Bassnett, Susan. (1986). Feminist experiences. The women's movement in four cultures. London u.a: Allen &Unwin.
  • Basu, Amrita. (2010). Women's movements in the global era: the power of local feminisms. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  • Basu, Amrita, and C. Elizabeth McGrory. (1995). The challenge of local feminisms: women's movements in global perspective. Boulder: Westview Press.
  • Chatty, Dawn, and Annika Rabo. (1997). Organizing women: formal and informal women's groups in the Middle East. Oxford: Berg.
  • Desai, Neera, and Vibhuti Patel. (1985). Indian women: change & challenge in the international decade, 1975-85. Bombay: Popular Prakashan.
  • Durán, Lydia Alpízar ( (2007) Building feminist movements and organizations: global perspectives: G - Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series, New York; Zed Books.
  • Fernea, Elizabeth Warnock, and BasimaQattanBezirgan. (1984). Middle Eastern Muslim women speak. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Kennedy, Mary, Cathy Lubelska, and Val Walsh. (1993). Making connections: Women's Studies, women's movements, women's lives. London: Taylor & Francis.
  • Khanam, Rashida (2002) Muslim feminism and feminist movement: CentralAsiaVolume 2 of Muslim Feminism and Feminist Movement, New Delhi; Global Vision Publishing House.
  • Kumar, Radha. (1993). The history of doing: an illustrated account of movements for women's rights and feminism in India, 1800- 1990. London: Verso.
  • Jayawardena, Kumari. (1986). Feminism and Nationalism in the Third World. New Delhi: Kali for Women.
  • Molyneux, Maxine. (2001). Women's movements in international perspective: Latin America and beyond. New York: Palgrave.
  • Roces, Mina Edwards, Louise (2010) Women's movements in Asia: feminisms and transnational activism, Oxon; Taylor & Francis.
  • Ray, Raka. (1999). Fields of protest: women's movements in India.
  • Minneapolis, Minn: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Ryan, Barbara. (1992). Feminism and the women's movement: dynamics of change in social movement ideology, and activism. New York: Routledge.
  • Stienstra, Deborah. (1994). Women's movements and international organizations. New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • Tripp, Aili Mari. (2009). African women's movements: transforming political landscapes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
6.CGS-106: Women’s History in South Asia

Course Objectives: 

  • Demonstrate knowledge of the historical and philosophical trends in the field.
  • Understand the scope and changes within the field with an ability to assess strengths and weaknesses of various positions, methods, and beliefs.
  • Being disciplinarily responsible and understanding the strengths and limitations of interdisciplinary work.

Course Description:

The aim of this course is to introduce the historical background of South Asian women in all ages. This course helps the students understand the paradoxical situations and dichotomies that continue in the lives of women in South Asia. Using feminist tools of historical research and of reading the inscribed texts, this course examines the past through gender lens. Thus, we would critically assess how politics of power and control have made women invisible and hidden and how the patriarchal craft of constructing history has objectified women as passive and not as active agents of history. Examining the earlier situation of women briefly, our exploration, in this course, starts with the commencement of the nineteenth century. We will read texts explaining the roots of the continuous debates that keep South Asian women marginalized and silenced.

Course Contents:


  • South Asia: Reading the map of the region

Historical overview of Women in South Asia

  • Events changing women’s lives
  • Women changing the time

An overview of women’s roles

  • Early and medieval periods of the history of South Asia.

 Women, Gender, & socio-cultural traditions at the close of the 18th century

  • Female infanticide
  • Pre-puberty marriages
  • Widow burning
  • Polygamy
  • Dowry
  • Divorce

 Connecting with the West

  • Colonisation of South Asia and the woman question

Beginning of the Socio-Religious Movements

  • Indigenous movements
  • Movements initiated and supported by the colonial powers

Literature produced for and by women

  • Women’s Journals and Magazines

Women’s Education

  • Impact on women’s lives.

Suffrage movement and women’s political awareness Unit 

10: The Nationalist Movement and Women’s Question

  • Beginning of Women’s Organisations

The Dawn of Freedom

  • Communal riots and atrocities against women

Independence and Beginning of a New Phase of Women’s Struggle

  • Women responding to new challenges: 1947-1970
  • Political Process and Transformation of Women’s Movement: 1970-2000
  • New Challenges at the turn of the Millennium: 2000-2015

Recommended Readings: 

  • Ali, AzraAsghar. (2000). The Emergence of Feminism among Indian Muslim women-1920-1947. Karachi: OUP.
  • Amin, Sonia Nishat. (1996). The World of Muslim Women in Colonial Bengal, 1876–1939. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
  • Basu, Aparna, and AnupTaneja. (2002). Breaking out of invisibility: women in Indian history. New Delhi: Northern Book Centre in association with Indian Council of Historical Research.
  • Bharati Ray. (ed.) (2005). Women of India: Colonial and post-colonial periods. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
  • Burton, Antoinette. (1994). Burdens of History. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
  • Butalia, Urvashi. (2000). The Other Side of the Silence. Voices from the Partition of India. Durham: Duke University Press.
  • Findly, Ellison Banks. (2000). Women's Buddhism, Buddhism's Women: tradition, revision, renewal. Boston: Wisdom Publications.
  • Forbes, Geraldine. (2003).“Reflections on South Asian Women’s/Gender History: Past andFuture” in Online Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History 4, no. 1.
  • Forbes, Geraldine. (1996). The New Cambridge History of IndiaWomen in Modern India. Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress.
  • Gavin R. G. Hambly (ed.). (1998). Women in the Medieval Islamic World: Power,
  • Patronage, andPiety, New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  • Husain, Salma Tasadduq. (1987). Āzadīkā Safar Tehrīk-i Pakistan aur Muslim khwātīn Lahore: Pakistan Study Centre, University of the Punjab.
  • Jahan, Roushan. (1988). Sultana’s Dream and Selections from the Secluded Ones by RokeyaSakhawat Hossain. New York: Feminist Press.
  • Jalanshari, Shamim. (1981). Tarīkh-i Pakistan men  khwatīnkā Kirdār,1947: Āgaurkhūn men dubīhūīekhaqīqat. Lahore: Ishaat- i-Adab.
  • Kausar, Zinat. (1992). Muslim Women in Medieval India. New Delhi: JanakiPrakashan.
  • Kumar, Radha. (1993). The history of doing: an illustrated account of movements for women's rights and feminism in India 1800-1990. New Delhi: Kali for Women.
  • Lateef, Shahida. (1990). Muslim women in India: Political and Private realities 1890-1980. New Delhi: Kali for Women.
  • Menon, Ritu. (2004). No Woman’s Land: Women from Pakistan, India & Bangladesh Write on the Partition of India. New Delhi: Women Unlimited.
  • Minault, Gail. (1998). Secluded Scholars. Women’s education and Muslim social reform in colonial India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
  • Minault, Gail. (1981).The extended family: women and political participation in India and Pakistan. Columbia, Mo: South Asia Books.
  • Mirza, Sarfaraz Hussain. (1969). Muslim Women’s Role in the Pakistan Movement. Lahore: Research Society of Pakistan, Punjab University.
  • Misra, Rekha. (1967). Women in Mughal India, 1526–1748 A.D. Delhi: Munshi Ram Manoharlal.
  • Mumtaz, Khawar, and Farida Shaheed. (1987). Women of Pakistan: two steps forward, one step back? London: Zed Books.
  • Upadhyay, H. C. (1991). Status of women in India 1. New Delhi: Anmol Publ.
  • Sangari, Kumkum. (2001). Politics of the Possible-Essays on gender, history, narratives, colonial English. New Delhi: Tulika
7.CGS-107: Gender and Islam

Course Objectives: 

  • Know Islamic thought on gender issues.
  • Understand the major themes of the Qur’an regarding gender roles in society.
  • Use this knowledge and understanding to think critically about connections between how Muslim women see themselves and how other see them.
  • Train young generation to devise policies to incorporate Islamic teachings to eliminate gender based inequalities.

Course Description:

The rights, roles and appearance of Muslim women have long been the focus of the Muslim world. Beginning with the advent of Islam, this course examines the pre Islamic, historical and contemporary gender roles as articulated in Islamic system. The main thrust of this course Is to assess the complex intersections between traditions, male authority, state power, and vision of Muslim women in Islam. After addressing the development of Islamic thought about women and gender and tracing the historical development of the status of women throughout the Islamic world, attention will be paid to the ways in which Muslim women are portrayed in contemporary popular and academic work. The course will also pay attention to the contemporary topics of the rise of Islamic feminism in the Muslim world, transformations of gender relations, and studies of the Islamic construction of masculinity.

Course Contents:

  • Status of women in Islam – Quran, Sunnah, Fiqh(Shariah)
  • Women in early Islamic history: the family of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Mothers of the Believers - Wives and the daughters of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW)
  • Construction of masculinity, femininity and others in Islam
  • Gender and patriarchy: Male authority-issuance of fatawah and others
  • The role of the State power
  • Concept of equality, law of evidence and inheritance
  • Muslim Family life: marriage, dower, divorce, birth control and abortion, and custody of children
  • Islam and human rights: The last Sermon of Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW)
  • Current issues within the study of gender and Islam
  • Women in contemporary Muslim world, challenges and issues of the 21st century

Recommended Readings: 

  • Ahmed, Leila. (1992). Women and Gender in Islam. USA: Yale University Press.
  • Awde, Nicholas. (1998). Women in Islam: An anthology from the Quranand Hadith. London: Curzon Press.
  • Badawi, Jamal A. (1995). Gender equity in Islam: basic principles.USA:
  • American Trust Publications.
  • Badawi, Jamal A. (1980). The Muslim Woman’s Dress: According to theQur’an and Sunnah. London, Ta-ha Publishers.
  • Barlas, Asma. (2002). Believing Women” in Islam-Unreading Patriarchal Interpretations of the Qur’an. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Cooke,  Miriam.  (2001). Creating  Islamic  Feminism  through  Literature: Women Claim Islam. New York: Routledge.
  • Firdous, Rehana. (2003). A Permissible Step for Restraining Man’s Unilateral Right toDivorce: Talaq-i-tafwid (Delegation of Power of Divorce).PakistanJournal of Women’s Studies, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 73-79.
  • Firdous, Rehana. (2000). Woman’s Right of Separation (Khul);can she claim it as a matter of Law? In Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies,Vol. 57 No.1, pp. 1-20.
  • Hassan, Riffat. (1994). Family Planning and Islam: A Muslim Women’s Perspective.Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies, Vol. 1, No.2, pp. 25-33.
  • Maudoodi, Syed AbulʻAla, and al-Ashʻari. (1972). Purdah and the statusof woman in Islam. Lahore: Islamic Publications.
  • Mehdi, R. (2013). The Islamization of Law in Pakistan (RLE Politics of Islam) (Vol 12). Routledge.
  • Mernissi, Fatima. (1991). Woman and Islam- An Historical and TheologicalEnquiry. Oxford: Blackwell Ltd.
  • Murshid, Tazeen M. (2005). “ Islam, Shariah Law, and the Role of Women in Muslim Societies: Myths and Perceptions” in Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 1-21.
  • Naseef, Fatima Umar, SalehaMahmoodAbedin. (1999). Women inIslam: a discourse in rights and obligations. New Delhi: SterlingPublishers.
  • Roald, Anne  Sofia. (2001).  Women in Islam-The Western Experience.
  • London: Routledge.
  • Schimmel, Annemarie. (1997). My soul is a woman: the feminine in Islam.
  • New York: Continuum.
  • Thurlkill, Mary F. (2007). “Holy Women, Holy Vessels: Mary and Fatima in Medieval Christianity and Shi’ite Islam” in Pakistan Journal ofWomen’s Studies, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 27-51.
  • Wadud, Amina. (1999). Qur’an and Woman- Rereading the Sacred Textsfrom a Woman’s Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Wadud, Amina. (1997).“Women and Islam: Beyond the Stereotypes” in Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 1-14.
8.CGS-108: Gender and Religion

Course Objectives: 

  • Develop critical and ethical thinking with a feminist perspective.
  • Understand the major themes of various religions regarding gender roles in society.
  • Use gender as a category of analysis to study religion. Conduct research and develop analytical skills.
  • Identify the most effective strategies for empowering women and weaker segments of society within religious traditions.
  • Devise policies to incorporate religious teachings to eliminate gender-based inequalities in society.

Course Description:

This course is designed to look at various religious norms from the perspective of gender. Considering the feminist approaches to the religious experiences of different gender, this course will study the religious beliefs, practices and systems liberating or oppressing women. The course will also focus on the differences between the sacred and the profane as being a distinction between male and female activities.

Course Contents:

  • Overview of the religious traditions regarding gender with special emphasis on women.
  • Images of feminine and masculine forms of the Divine.
  • An introduction to Gender and Religion- study of contemporary writings that explore the relations between gender and religion in the West from historical, anthropological, theological and philosophical perspectives.
  • Gender and religious imagination: Building on the widely accepted assumption that religion is a cultural phenomenon and that gender is a critical aspect of cultural formation
  • Sex, celibacy and the problem of puberty: Ascetism and the body in late antiquity.
  • Hinduism: Status of women in the religious texts, Relationship of female-gendered and feminine images and symbols to ‘real’ women.
  • Introducing goddesses and their power
  • Buddhism: The issue of female presence in the Buddhist discourse. The ordination of women in the Buddhist sangha. Women and the issue of ‘enlightenment’.
  • Judaism: The concept of Eve and the original sin. Lilith and Eve the duality of female representation. The concept of purity, chastity, and control of the female body.
  • Images of women in the New Testament
  • Virgin Mary and the place of women in the Church organization
  • Women and gender in the Qur’an
  • Status of women in Islam, interpretations (patriarchal) of the Text, concept of male authority, contemporary construction of femininity in Islam
  • Women claiming their lost position in the realm of religious knowledge and practices.

Recommended Readings: 

  • Anderson, Leona M., Young, Pamela Dickey (eds). 2004 Women and Religious Traditions. Oxford University Press.
  • Ask, Karin, TjomslandMarit. (1998). Women and Islamization:contemporarydimensions of discourse on gender relations. Oxford: Berg.Falk, Nancy Auer.Gross, Rita M.(2001). Unspoken Worlds: Women’s Religious Lives (3rded). Wadsworth Thompson.
  • Gross, Rita M. (1996). Feminism and religion: an introduction. Boston: Beacon Press.
  • Jaffery, R.Jaffery, P. (2012). Appropriating Gender:
  • Women activism and politicised religion in South Asia.Routledge.Joffe, Lisa Fishbayn.Neil, Sylvia. (2013).Gender, Religion and Family Law;Theorising Conflicts between Women’s Rights and Cultural Traditions. USA: Brandies University Press.
  • Julé, Allyson. (2005). Gender and the language of religion.UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Karim, JamillahAshira. (2009). American Muslim women: negotiating race,class,and gender within the ummah. New York: New York UniversityPress.
  • King, Ursula.Beattie,Tina. (2004). Gender, religion, and diversity: cross-cultural perspectives. London: Continuum.
  • King, Ursula. (1995). Religion and gender. UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Low, Alaine M., Tremayne,Soraya. (2001). Sacred custodians of the earth;women, spirituality, and the environment. New York: Berghahn Books.Peach, Lucinda J. (2002). Women and World Religions. USA: Prentice Hall.
  • Ruether, Rosemary Radford. Keller, Rosemary Skinner.(1981). Women and Religion in America. San Francisco: Harper & Row.
  • Sharma, Arvind, Young, Katherine K. (1999). Feminism and WorldReligions. New York: State University of New York Press.
9.CGS-109: Research Methodology

Course Objectives: 

  • Formulate research questions, develop a coherent research design
  • Develop independent thinking for developing a research proposal and critically analysing research reports.
  • Apply research methods and conduct research on gender issues

Course Description:

The course deals with the traditional as well as emerging research methods used in social sciences with particular references to the study of gender based issues. The course will provide an overview of the various phases of carrying out research, i.e. planning the research study, selecting appropriate methods for data collection, analysing the data and reporting the results.

Course Contents:

Research Process

  • Problem identification; conceptualization, connection of research with real life situations, research implications

Research Design

  • Research paradigm: qualitative, quantitative and triangulation (mixed methods)

Sampling techniques

  • Population and sample, probability and non-probability sampling techniques

Data collection techniques

  • Questionnaires and tests; pre-testing, types of interviews, focused group discussion, participant and non-participant observation, reliability and validity issues

Research ethics

  • Informed consent of the respondent; due recognition of the respondents’ contribution and confidentiality, anonymity and safety issues

Data analysis techniques

  • Qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques

Report writing

  • Use of library and information technology in Research: Information sources; bibliographical sources; reference and documentation; types of bibliography; endnotes and footnoting

Recommended Readings: 

  • Aneshensel, Carol S. (2002). Theory Based Data Analysis for the Social Sciences. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Pine Forge.
  • Baily, Kenneth D. (1982). Methods of Social Research., N.Y.: Free Press, (Second Edition).
  • Burgess, Robert G. (1984). In the field: an introduction to field research.London: Allen & Unwin.
  • Bryman, Alan & Burgess, Robert G. (1994). Analyzing qualitative data.London: Routledge.
  • Cochran, William G. (1977). Sampling techniques. New York: Wiley.
  • Eichler, Margrit. (1991). Non-sexist research methods: a practical guide. London: Routledge.
  • Feldstein, Hilary Sims, and Janice Jiggins. (1994). Tools for the field: methodologies handbook for gender analysis in agriculture. West Hartford, Conn: Kumarian Press.
  • Fonow, Mary Margaret & Judith A. Cook. (1991). Beyond methodology: feminist scholarship as lived research. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Gray, Ann. (2003). Research practice for cultural studies: ethnographic methods and lived cultures. London: Sage.
  • Grosz, Elizabeth. (1990). Jacques Lacan: A Feminist Introduction. London: Routledge.
  • Hesse-Biber, Sharlene Nagy, and Patricia Leavy. (2007). Feminist research practice: a primer. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
  • Hesse-Biber, Sharlene Nagy. (2007). Handbook of feminist research: theory and praxis. Thousand Oaks, Calif: SAGE.
  • Holland, Janet, Maud Blair, and Sue Sheldon. (1995). Debates and issues in feminist research and pedagogy: a reader. Clevedon, Avon, England: Multilingual Matters in association with the Open University.
  • Kleinman, Sherryl. (2007). Feminist Field Work Analysis: Qualitative Research Methods. Los Angeles: Sage.
  • Letherby, Gayle.( 2003). Feminist research in theory and practice.Buckingham: Open University Press.
  • Liamputtong, Pranee.( 2008). Researching the Vulnerable: A Guide to Sensitive Research Methods. London: Sage.
  • Neuman, W. Lawrence. (2000). Social Research Methods: Quantitative Approaches. Boston, Ally & Bacon.
  • Oppong, Christine, and Katharine Abu. (1986). A handbook for data collection and analysis on seven roles and statuses of women. Geneva: ILO.
  • Reinharz, Shulamit. (1982). Feminist Methods in Social Research. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Roberts, Helen. (1981). Doing feminist research. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  • Silverman, David. (2005). Doing Qualitative Research: A Practical Handbook. London, Sage.
  • UN. ESCAP. (1987). Training manual on managing development programme for women. [Bangkok]: ESCAP.
10.CGS-110: Gender and Health

Course Objectives: 

  • Understand the gendered knowledge, attitudes and practices towards gender and health
  • Analyze the socio-cultural myths and stigma attached with health-care seeking behaviour.
  • Enhance knowledge about preventive and curative diseases
  • Understand health scenario and policies, their importance and implications

Course Description:

Recognizing the basic truth that good health of all genders is an indicator of a prosperous society, this course looks at the current health status of the Pakistani community by examining their health needs, facilities for addressing these needs, and more importantly, their awareness about their health needs and attitudes. Health, in this course, means total wellbeing of humans, including physical, emotional, and psychological wellbeing. This course, thus, looks how men and women perceive their personal health needs and how they look at each other’s health needs. In addition to the institutionalized healthcare system, in this course we would also study traditional systems of cure and healing, and myths and belief systems. The core issue of investigation, throughout this course, is the question of decision-making whenever a need arises to seek healthcare for women all through their different stages of life. Thus, neglect of the health needs of the girls, of adult women, and of aged and old women is an important segment of the course. Related to this is the most significant issue of reproductive health.

 Course Contents: 


  • Defining health
  • Health as a gender issue (Sociological and demographic influences)
  • Emotional and psychological wellbeing of women
  • Variations in health status,
  • Access to health care services
  • Knowledge and sources of data about health
  • Role of culture and myths
  • Role of Governmental and International agencies, specially the UN.

Social determinants of health

  • Gradient
  • Early life and education
  • Life Expectancy
  • Social Support Networks

Life cycle of women’s health

  • Girl child (birth, childhood and puberty)
  • Reproductive span
  • Problems with early marriage and maternity
  • Health as a human right
  • Problems of women’s health
  • Problems of aged and aging women


  • Knowledge and attitudes towards balanced diet
  • Malnutrition and women’s health, myths and practices
  • Cooking practices


  • Social definition of illness
  • Cultural Influences on Illness
  • Preventable and treatable diseases and their management.
  • Self medication (practices)

Reproductive health

  • Menarche, adolescence, pregnancy and childbirth
  • Male-female infertility
  • Knowledge and attitudes towards family planning
  • Contraception and safe sex (RTI, STD, HIV/AIDS)
  • Role of LHVs
  • Abortion and miscarriages

Women and health Laws

  • Awareness, policies and planning
  • Current legislation
  • International conventions
  • Effect of various health laws on women.

Population policy and planning in Pakistan

  • Population processes (fertility, mortality and migration)
  • Population projection
  • Pressure of population and its effects on the standards of health
  • Population policy and its implications

Recommended Readings: 

  • Bird, Chloe E., and Patricia P. Rieker. (2008). Gender and health. Cambridge[u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Curtis, Sara. (2004). Health and Inequality. London: Sage.
  • Kariapper, Rehana. (2007). Unravelling realities: reproductive health and rights. Lahore: Shirkat Gah.
  • Khan, Ayesha. (2000). Adolescents and reproductive health in Pakistan: a literaturereview: final report. Islamabad, Pakistan: Population Council.
  • Kirkham, Marvis. (2006). Social Pollution and Women’s Health. New York: Routledge.
  • Lee, Christina. (1999)Women’s Health: Psychological and Social Perspectives. London:Sage. 36
  • Markides, Kyriakos S. (1989). Aging and health: perspectives on gender, race, ethnicity, and class. Newbury Park, Calif: Sage Publications.
  • Nelson, Debra L., and Ronald J. Burke.( 2002). Gender, work stress, and health. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Assoc.
  • Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies, (2006). vol. 13, no. 2 (special issue on women’s health).
  • Pollard, Tessa M., and Susan Brin Hyatt. (1999). Sex, gender, and health. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  • Schulz, Amy J., and Leith Mullings. (2006). Gender, race, class, and health: intersectional approaches. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Major Courses

1. CGS-201: Gender and Development

Course Objectives: 

  • To develop an understanding of the concept of development
  • To see how women have been integrated into the social, economic and political processes of development.
  • To critically analyse and relate the theoretical issues in development to the lived realities of women in developing countries.

Course Description:

The course aims to critically examine development paradigms and the emergence of woman as a category in the field of development. It will study the invisibility of women in conventional development models resulting in their marginalized status in the economy. In this vein it will also look at the workings of International monetary agencies and how policies like structural adjustment policies have impacted women. It will trace the historical shift from Women in Development (WID) to Gender in Development (GAD) reflected in national as well as international policy documents. The role of development agencies, national and international and Non-Governmental organizations (NGOs) will also be examined. Various approaches to women’s development such as welfare, anti-poverty, equality, efficiency and empowerment will be discussed. The course will use case studies from Latin America, Africa and Asia to highlight issues of labour, political participation, education, violence and land ownership.

Course Contents:


  • The concept and definition of gender
  • Concept and definition of development
  • development with an understanding of changing
  • Gender Dynamics and Development
  • Exploring Attitudes towards Gender
  • Social construction of gender

Gender Roles, Relations and development

  • Gender Roles
  • Types of Gender Roles
  • Gender Roles and Relationships Matrix
  • Gender-based Division and Valuation of Labour
  • Gender equality and equity, and gender empowerment.
  • Gender mainstreaming strategy.

Measurement of development

  • Factors in development
  • The emergence of the First World, Second World and the Third World
  • Characteristics of Third World countries
  • Issues in the Third World countries specific to Asia

 Theories of Development

  • Introduction to development Theories: Modernization, Dependency, and world Systems.
  • How women emerge in development theories as a category in development

Approaches to Gender and development

  • Women in Development (WID)
  • Women and Development (WAD)
  • Gender and Development (GAD)
  • Women empowerment issues and dimensions
  • Development approaches: welfare, equality, anti-poverty, efficiency and empowerment

Women’s growing engagement and activism

  • United Nations
  • Women’s conferences
  • Gender Reform Action Plan (GRAP)
  • Millennium Development Goals (MDG)
  • Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)
  • The role of NGOs at local and global levels.

Changing notions of development and new emerging theories

  • Contemporary and emerging theories of development

Recommended Readings:

  • Cornwall, A., & Edwards, J. (2014) Feminisms, Empowerment and Development: Changing Women's Lives.
  • Cornwall, A., Harrison, E., & Whitehead, A. (2013) Feminisms in Development: Contradictions, Contestations and Challenges 
  • Dalla, C. M., & Dalla, C. G. (1999) Women, Development, and Labor of Reproduction: Struggles and Movements. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.
  • Enloe, C. H. (2014) Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics.
  • Kabeer, N. (2003) Reversed Realities: Gender Hierarchies in Development Thought. London: Verso.
  • Mies, M., & Bennholdt-Thomsen, V. (2000) The Subsistence Perspective: Beyond the Globalised Economy. London: Zed Books.
  • Shiva, V. (2016) Staying Alive: Women, Ecology, and Development. Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books.
  • Visvanathan, N. (2011) The Women, Gender and Development Reader. London: Zed Books Ltd.
2. CGS-202: Gender and Sexuality

Course Objectives: 

  • To enable students to ponder on the notion that people experience gender and sexuality across their life-span and be able to apply concepts in class to analysing life narratives.
  • To understand how age intersects with gender, sexuality, race, ability and other identities
  • To think critically about heteronormative and homonormative assumptions about family, reproduction and what constitutes a "good life.

Course description:

Thinking through questions of age, development, identity, reproduction, and family formations, in this course we will explore gender and sexuality across the life-span. Starting with pregnancy and birth, we will continue through childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, and end with elder-care and aging. Interdisciplinary in nature, this course provides scholarship from a variety of fields including psychology, biology, literature, queer theory, feminist theory, anthropology, and history.

The course will meet two times a week for a discussion-based class. Students will be expected to come to class prepared to participate in discussion. Additional readings, grades and assignments will be given throughout the semester.

Course Contents:

  • Introduction to philosophical and theoretical foundations: concepts and ideas
  • Studying about sex and sexuality: biological and sociological understanding
  • Social construction of gender: sex gender differentiation
  • Overview of history of sexuality: the heteronormative paradigm
  • Sexuality and body: manifestation and limitation of sexuality
  • Sexuality and intersectionality approach: economic, social, political, religious
  • Sexuality and gender: men women and other gender/sexual identities
  • Sexual health and reproductive health issues: contemporary debates
  • Power and sexuality: surveillance, control, technologies

Recommended readings:

  • Foucualt, M. (1990). The History of Sexuality: An Introduction. Germany: Knopf Doubleday Publishing.
  • Hemmings, C. (2002). Bisexual Spaces: A Geography of Sexuality and Gender. London: Routledge.
  • Horrocks, R. (1997). An Introduction to the Study of Sexuality. London: Macmillan.
  • Katz, J. (1995). The invention of Heterosexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Mottier, V. (2012). Sexuality: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Osella, F., & Caroline. (2006). Men and Masculinities in South Asia. London: Anthem Press.
  • Palmary, I. (2016). Gender, Sexuality and Migration in South Africa: Governing Morality. CapeTown: PalgraveMacmillan.
  • Pukall, C. F. (2017). Human Sexuality:A contemporary Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Roy, S. (2012). New South Asian Feminisms: Paradoxs and Possibilities. London: Zed books.
  • Thatcher, A. (2010). Religion, gender and sexuality: An Introduction. London: SAGE publications.
3. CGS-203: Gender, Technology and Entrepreneurship

Course Objectives: 

  • Understand the relevance of technology in women’s lives.
  • Analyze if men and women access and use technology differently.
  • Evaluate contemporary technologies in terms of their gender and class meanings and significance.
  • Be able to reflect critically on some of the politically and socially gendered implications of technology.
  • Assess technology and emerging patterns of gendered segregated data in terms of choosing technology related professions, choice of academic subjects, and equal inclusion of men and women in technology-related fields.
  • Assess technology and emerging patterns of gendered segregation of work.
  • Explore relationship between technology and women’s entrepreneurial skills.`

Course Description:

In today’s world technology plays a vital role in communication, education, politics, and entertainment, to name a few areas. This course will explore the relationship between gender and technology. As such, technology now hugely also contributes to gender roles, expectations, and relations—personally and professionally; this course will critically engage in such debates. Furthermore, this course will also explore how both men and women use and contribute to the field of technology.

Course Contents:

  • The socio-political implications of technology on defining and constructing gender
  • Access to technology: who, why, where, and how?
  • Technology and politics: personal and professional.
  • How men and women use technology?
  • Why men and women use technology as they do?
  • Inclusivity vs. Exclusivity
  • Technology, gender, work, development

Recommended Readings:

  • Beede, David, Julian,Tiffany, Langdon, David, McKittrick, George, Khan,Beethika, and Doms, Mark. (2011). Women in STEM: A Gender Gap to Innovation.U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration Issue Brief, No. 04(11), pp. 1-11.
  • Bray, Francesca. (2007). Gender and Technology. Annual Review of Anthropology, 36, pp. 37–53.
  • Cochan, J. McGrath, and Aspray Williams. (2006). Women and Information Technology: Research on Under representation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Dholakia, Ruby Roy, Dholakia, Nikhilesh, and Kshetri, Nir. (2003). Gender and Internet Usage. The Internet Encyclopedia. Hossein Bidgoli (Ed.). New York: Wiley.
  • Faruq, Saad. (August 6, 2013). Gender and Social Media: How Men and
  • Women Differ .Electronic Document,
  •, accessed September 15, 2014.
  • Fox, Mary Frank, Johnson, Deborah G., and Rosser, Sue Vilhaur. (2006). Women, Gender, and Technology. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
  • Hill,Catherine, Corbett, Christianne and St. Rose, Andresse. (2010). Why So Few?:Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Washington DC.: AAUW.
  • Leggatt, Helen. (April 03, 2014).Gender Attitudes to Social Media Poles Apart.
  • Electronic Document, -media-poles-apart.html, accessed September 15, 2014.
  • Ragone, Helena, and Twine, France Winddance. (2000). Ideologies and Technologies of Motherhood: Race, Class, Sexuality, Nationalism. New York: Routledge.
  • UNESCO. (2007). Science, Technology, and Gender: An International Report. Paris: UNESCO, France.
  • Wyer, Mary. (2001). Women, Science, and Technology: A Reader in Feminist Science Studies. New York: Routledge
4. CGS-204: Women Mystics

Course Objectives: 

  • To familiarize students with the core concept(s) of mysticism and its manifestation throughout different traditions of the world.
  • To explore the gender dimensions of mysticism/spirituality and how individuals practice mysticism/spirituality.
  • To discover the role, position and status of women mystics within diverse traditions of the world.

Course Description:

Mysticism is often described as the internal, esoteric and hidden dimension of religions in this world which also focuses on the interior aspects of the phenomena. Addressing what is being hidden and given and providing a way to approach the divine, mysticism provides direct and intimate relation to the divine. One of the essential and unique features of mysticism is related to the fact that it is applicable to all human beings irrespective of their social, cultural, religious, ethnic, and gender identities. Each and every human soul is capable of approaching the divine and mysticism provides a way of doing that. This course is therefore aimed to highlight the “mystic streak” within different religious traditions; however more focus will be given to the indigenous traditions of South Asia (Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Buddhism among others) that have been enabling individuals to approach the divine. In South Asia ‘sufism’ is among those living traditions, known as mystical dimension of Islam, where the element of love is being practiced through various means.

The course will be divided into three parts. First, the course will discuss the concept of mysticism, its presence, evolution and contestations within world religions and concepts of Islamic mysticism will be elaborated in detail. Later the course will be based on issues of gender and mysticism, how women and men take the path of mysticism, and what are the contributions of women and men in constructing paths of love within mysticism. Lastly, the course will comprise of examples of women mystics from all over the world. Their life histories, ideologies, status, journey, struggle, achievements will be discussed in detail. Some of the contemporary women mystics will be invited to present their life stories with the students.

Course Contents:

  • Mysticism and World Religions: basic concept, religions and mysticism
  • Islam and Mysticism: Sufis Islamic tradition
  • Gender and Mysticism:  women and mysticism, religion and psychology, Love and mysticism
  • Islamic mysticism: gender analysis
  • Women mystics: lives and works of women mystics
  • Case study of women in Islamic mysticism
  • Hazrat Fatimah, Rabia Basri, Zeb Un Nisa Makhfi, Lalla Arifa, Mira, Quratul Ain Tahira etc

Recommended Readings:

  • Ahmed, D. S. (2002). Gendering the Spirit: Women, Religion and Post-colonial Response. NewYork: Zed Books.
  • Cornell, R. E. (2005). Early Sufi women. Lahore: Suhail Academy .
  • Diaz, M. M. (2015). Women in Sufism: Female relegiosties in a Transnational order. London: Routledge.
  • Furlong, M. (1996). Visions and Longings: Medieval Women Mystics. Boston: Shambha Publications.
  • Murata, S. (1992). The Tao of Islam: A source book on Gender relationship in Islamic Thought. NewYork: State University of NewYork Press.
  • Nurbaksh, J. (2004). Sufi Women. NewYork: Khanaqahi Nimatullahi Publications.
  • Pemberton, K. (2010). Women Mystics ans Shrines in India. South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press.
  • Schimmel, A. (1997). My Soul is a women: the Feminie in Islam. NewYork: Continuum.
  • Shaikh, S. (2014). Sufi narratives of intimacy: Ibn Arabi, Gender and Sexuality. North Carolina: University of North Carolina.
  • Smith, M. (2001). Muslim women Mystics. NewYork: One world Publications.
5. CGS-205: Men and Masculinities

Course Objective:

  • To introduce students with the field of men and masculinities studies and its significance in the academia.
  • To develop an understanding about the social construction of gender and process of socialization of masculinity and femininity across the globe and more specifically in the national context.
  • To equip students with the ability to critically analyze masculinities in their various forms throughout the world.

Course Description:

Men and Masculinities as a field of inquiry emerged from within Feminist and Gender studies. Focusing on the social construction of gender in general and men in particular, the course will enable the understanding of looking at various forms of masculinities and its consequences within the society. Men and Masculinities studies aims to highlight the complex process of socialization and various factors involved in it. This course will also bring awareness about the significance of the concept of men and masculinities within society.

The course will explore different theoretical frameworks related to the social construction of gender. This exploration will serve as the foundation of the course. It will then identify different approaches to study the role, position and status of men across various cultures and traditions. The course will use knowledge from other related disciplines; hence it will be interdisciplinary in its nature and approach.  The course will draw from examples of contemporary society and try to analyze issues within the local cultural context.

Course Contents:

  • Introduction to discipline of Masculinity Studies: historical evolution and phases
  • Masculinity and Femininity: understanding and debates
  • Feminist theory: Men’s feminism
  • Social construction of men: Socialization and related concepts
  • Men, power and violence: identity formation, hegemonic masculinity
  • Masculinity and various forms: Social understanding of being a man
  • Masculinity and sexuality: Homophobic and Homosexual debates
  • Men and the social world: work, labor, politics and development
  • Men and the contemporary world: Marginalized men and struggle
  • Men’s rights movement in the world and its forms
  • Masculinity and contemporary world: debates, issues and challenges

Recommended Readings:

  • Buchbinder, D. (2013). Studying Men and Masculinities. New York: Routledge.
  • Connell, R. W. (1995). Masculinities. California: University of California Press.
  • Delap, L., & Morgan, S. (2013). Men, Masculinities and Religious change in Twentieth-century Britian. London: Palgrave Macmilian.
  • Edley, N. (2017). Men and Masculinity: the basics . London: Routledge.
  • Kaufman, M. (1987). Beyond Patriarchy: Essays by men on pleasure, power and change. New york: Oxford University Press.
  • Kimmel, M. S., Hearn, J., & Connell, R. W. (2005). Handbook of studies of men and masculinities. London: Sage.
  • Murphy, P. F. (2004). Feminism and Masculinities. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Ouzgane, L. (2013). Islamic Masculinities. New York: Zedbooks.
  • Reddock, R. (2004). Masculinities. Kingston: UWI Press.
  • Sonday, A. d. (2015). The crisis of Islamic Masculinities. London: Bloosbury.
  • Whitehead, S,  Barrett, F. J. (2001). The Masculinities Reader. Cambridge : Polity.
6. CGS-206: Gender and International Relations

Course Objectives: 

  • To introduce students with core concepts/ main issues of international relations and international politics
  • To analyse critically the theoretical foundations and practical aspects of international relations and world affairs.
  • To familiarize students with how gender as a lens can contribute  the articulation of different understanding of world politics and also explore the contribution of feminism in International Relations.

Course Description:

Gender and International Relations (IR) emerged as a sub-field of International Relations during 1970s within the third debate. Feminist scholars also started engaging with the discipline of IR in order to reveal the other side of the field of inquiry. The initial debates and discussions led to the emergence of a full-fledged field of inquiry that exists now as Feminist International Relations. Gender as an analytical category assisted in revealing the gendered nature of IR and forwarded the agenda of critical thinking within International Politics. The course will aim to assist students with critical thinking and equip them with a gender lens in order to expose the gendered nature of International Politics. It will also assist in understanding the female/women’s voice, role, position and contribution in International Politics. International Relations has largely neglected the question of gender as irrelevant to International Politics until the advent of the feminist voyage within this discipline. Students through this course will be able to see the significance of women/gender in International Politics.

In addition, in analysing International Politics with a gender lens, how for instance femininity and masculinity have been incorporated implicitly into basic concepts and ideas of political and International Relations including war, nationalism, state, human rights, capitalism, peace, defence, diplomacy and anarchy, will be explored. Through this gender analysis it will also be seen how individuals- both men and women- have been playing various roles in International politics and relations among states.

Course Contents:

  • Introduction to International Relations: What is it all about? What do we know already? What do we expect to learn?
  • Theories/paradigms (Major Approaches in I.R)
  • Gender as a Lens in International Relations and Politics
  • Feminism meets I.R: Gender Interaction with I.R
  • Gendered Dimensions of War, Peace and Security
  • Gender in the Global Political Economy
  • Democratization, the state, and the Global Order: Gendered Perspectives
  • Women’s Human Rights and International Law
  • Feminist Methodology and Epistemology in International Relations
  • Conclusions and Beginnings: Some Pathways for IR feminist Futures

Recommended Readings:

  • Baas, P. (2006). Gender and International Relations. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Enloe, C. (1990). Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making feminist sense of International Politics. California: University of California Press.
  • Enloe, C. (2004). The curious Feminist: Searching for women in new age of Empire. California: University of California Press.
  • Hooper, C. (2001). Many States. NewYork: Columbia University Press.
  • Pettman, J. J. (1996). Worlding women- A Feminist International Politics. London: Routledge.
  • Runyan, A. S. (2015). Global Gender issues in New Millennium. London: Routledge.
  • Sylvester, C. (2001). Feminist International Relations: An Unfinished Journey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Tickner, A. J. (2001). Gendering World Politics. NewYork: Columbia University Press.
  • Tickner, J. A. (2014). A Feminist Voyage through International relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Whiteworth, S. (1997). Feminism and International Relations. NewYork: Palgrave Macmillan.
7. CGS-207: Women and Environment

Course Objectives: 

  • To equip students with the basic concepts related to environment and gender
  • To examine different ecological movements led by women for environmental sustainability.
  • To appraise how gender as power relationships influences climate change strategies and policy-making related to the environment

Course Description: 

This course will be aimed at highlighting and discussing different debates related to women and environment globally and particularly in the context of Pakistan. It is an emerging field in the scenario of climate change; water security is a prime example of how the economic, socio-cultural and political-normative systems that regulate access to water reflect the evolving and gendered power relations between different societal groups. It considers the ways in which men and women experience the impacts of these in different economic contexts.

Further, this course will be looking at different ecological movements inspired by women’s struggles for the protection of nature as a condition for human survival and how ecological destruction and the marginalization of women are not inevitable, economically or scientifically. Additionally, this course will be analyzing the strategies which are developed to tackle environmental issues with a gender perspective.

Course Contents:     

  • Link between women and environment
  • Ecological Movements
  • International commitments related to the environment
  • Climate change and its impact on women
  • Gender dimensions of water resources
  • Food security and women
  • Strategies to include indigenous knowledge for environment protection
  • Policy making related to the environment

Recommended Readings: 

  • Aftab, Tahera.( 2001). ‘Text and practice: Women and nature in Islam,’ in Alaine M. Low and Soraya Tremayne ed. Sacred custodians of the earth?: women, spirituality, and the environment. New York: Berghahn Books, pp. 141-158.
  • Buckingham,   Susan. (2000).            Gender            and      environment.   London: Routledge.
  • Braidotti, Rosi. (1994). Women, the environment and sustainable development: towards a theoretical synthesis. London: Zed Books in association with INSTRAW.
  • Jackson, Cecile. (1992). Gender, women and environment: harmony or discord? Norwich: University of East Anglia. School of Development Studies.
  • Low, Alaine M., and Soraya Tremayne. (2001. Sacred custodians of the earth?: women, spirituality, and the environment. New York: Berghahn Books.
  • Merchant, Carolyn. (1995). Earthcare: women and the environment. Routledge.
  • Mies, Maria, and Vandana Shiva. (1993). Ecofeminism. Halifax, N.S.: Fernwood Publications.
  • Ruether, Rosemary Radford. (1996). Women healing earth: Third World women on ecology, feminism, and religion. Maryknoll, N.Y.:  Orbis Books.
  • Rodda, Annabel. (1991). Women and the environment. London: Zed Books.
  • Sachs, Carolyn E. (1996). Gendered fields: rural women, agriculture, and environment. Boulder: Westview Press.
  • Shiva, Vandana, Moser, Ingunn (eds.) (1999). Biopolitics A Feminist and Ecological Reader on Biotechnology. London , Zed Books.
  • Shiva, Vandana. (1988). Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Survival in India. New Delhi, Kali for Women.
  • Venkateswaran, Sandhya, and Sandhya Venkateswaran. (1995). Environment, development and the gender gap. New Delhi: Sage Publications
8. CGS-208: Gender and Media

Course Objectives: 

  • To enable the students to conduct critical analysis of the media text
  • To introduce various theoretical frameworks to deconstruct the media text while keeping in view gendered analysis of the text
  • To engage with contemporary debates relating to the media industry and how they influence/resist the social construction of gender

Course Description:

The course will explore the relationship between the social construction of gender and media representations. The course will provide an overview of theories of gender and those of media production. The course will begin from the assumption that gender is foremost political and theories of gender are socially constructed. This course traces the history and theoretical dynamics of feminist and other media production. The course will shed light on the issues of representation asking what kinds of representations the mainstream media constructs and then how these representations function within wider social discourses and power structures. The course also questions how media through its representations, works to construct particular subject positions for its viewers and how particular genres structure these positions differently through their specific play of realism, ideology and fantasy.

Course Contents:

Overview of Media

  • What is media?
  • Types of media
  • Function and role of media in society

Historical Evolution of Media in Pakistan

  • Newspapers and magazines
  • Radio
  • Television
  • Film
  • New/social media

Media and Advertising

  • What is advertising?
  • Analysis of portrayal of women in advertising
  • Impact of women’s portrayal in advertisements on society

 Media Code of Conduct

  • Laws and ethics applying to portrayal of women and gender issues—PEMRA

Media Audience

  • Influence of media on audience
  • Women as consumers of media
  • Women’s influence on media contents as media audience

Media as Profession

  • Performers and artists
  • Models
  • In media and production houses
  • In newspaper agencies

Recommended Readings:

  • Downing, J. D. H. , Denis McQuail, Philip Schlesinger,  Ellen Wartella (2004) The SAGE Handbook of Media Studies, London: Sage Publications.
  • Durham, M. G. and Douglas M. Kellner (2012) Media and Cultural Studies: Keywork Second Edition, Oxford: Wiley Blackwell
  • Giaccardi, E. (eds) (2012) Heritage and Social Media: Understanding Heritage in a Participatory Culture New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group
  • Highfield, T. (2016) Social Media and Everyday Politics Cambridge: Polity Press
  • Hodkinson, P. (2013) Media, Culture and Society: An Introduction, London: Sage Publications
  • Kermani, S. Farrukhi, A. and Ali, K. A. (2015) Gender, Politics, and Performance in South Asia Karachi: Oxford University Press
  • Ross, K. and Carolyn M. Byerly (2006) Women and Media: International Perspectives Oxford: Blackwell Publishing
  • Rane, H. , Jacqui Ewart and John Martinkus (2014) Media Framing of the Muslim World: Conflicts, Crises and Contexts, New York: Palgrave MacMillan
  • Stokes, J. (2013) How to do Media and Cultural Studies Second Edition, London: Sage Publications
9. CGS-209: Gender and Health

Course Objectives: 

  • To analyse how social factors affect health of men and women differently
  • To link issues of gender based violence to the issue of health
  • To determine how culture has an impact on health

Course Description:

Health is the emotional, psychological and physical wellbeing of an individual in society and access to adequate health services is the basic right of every citizen of the society. This course will help us to identify health needs, access to health services and consciousness of a healthy society amongst both men and women in the contemporary society. The course will be more pertinent to issues of health in the context of Pakistan, and how men and women perceive and respond to health issues of the opposite gender. The course will also look into various regimes of health monitoring that prevail in the society from alternative healing mechanisms to medicinal curing systems. The course will also draw attention to reproductive health, myths of ‘fitness’ and overall physical/psychological wellbeing of women in particular and how do they overcome challenges which they address in their individual and social sustenance.

Course Contents:

  • Health as a gender issue (sociological and demographic influences)
  • Role of governmental and international agencies, specially the UN.
  • Life cycle of women’s health
  • Malnutrition and women’s health, myths and practices
  • Reproductive health
  • Menarche, adolescence, pregnancy and childbirth
  • Issues of male and female infertility
  • Knowledge and attitudes towards family planning
  • Contraception (RTI, STD, HIV/AIDS)
  • Abortion and miscarriages
  • Women and health Laws
  • Population policy and planning in Pakistan

Recommended Readings:

  • Beauty at any Cost, the Consequences of America’s Beauty Obsession on Women & Girls . (n.d.). Eliminating Racism Empowering Women YWCA.
  • Bird, Chloe E., and Patricia P. Rieker. 2008. Gender and health. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Chermack, P. M. (2005) Gender Disparities in Health: Strategic Selection, Careers, and Cycles of Control. Journals of Gerontology: Series B , The Gerontological Society of America 2005, Vol. 60B (Special Issue II): 99–108.
  • Curtis, Sara. 2004. Health and Inequality. London: Sage.
  • Denton, F. (2002) Climate Change Vulnerability, Impacts, and Adaptation: Why Does Gender Matter? . Gender and Development, Vol. 10, No. 2, Climate Change .
  • Helman, C. G. (n.d.) Culture, Health, Illness. Marlene B. Goldman, R. T. (2008)(n.d.). Women and Health 2nd edition.Bird, Chloe E., and Patricia P. Rieker.. Gender and Health. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Kariapper, Rehana. (2007) Unravelling realities: reproductive health and rights. Lahore: Shirkat Gah.
  • Khan, Ayesha. (2000) Adolescents and reproductive health in Pakistan: A Literature Review: final report. Islamabad, Pakistan: Population Council.
  • Kirkham, Marvis. ( 2006) Social Pollution and Women’s Health. New York: Routledge.
  • Pollard, Tessa M., and Susan Brin Hyatt. (1999) Sex, Gender, and Health. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Schulz, Amy J., and Leith Mullings. (2006) Gender, Race, Class, and Health: intersectional approaches. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Violence Against Women and Health (2007) The Women's Health Council.
10. CGS-210: Women and Work

Course Objectives: 

  • To understand varying degrees of work in which women are involved
  • To differentiate between the status of women in paid and unpaid work
  • The analyse the link between empowerment, agency and involvement of women in work

Course Description:

This course intends to understand the dynamics of various types of work in which women are involved in the household and/or in the public sphere. It will shed light on challenges faced by women in the formal and informal employment sectors. The course will bring forth the concept of work, of what constitutes as ‘work’, the notion of gender equality in the compensation in work. It will also focus on whether certain types of work are better associated with women whereas the others are more suitable to males in the society. The course will also reflect how and whether women’s involvement in work contributes the overall benefit of the household and even the society. Special emphasis will be given to women in Pakistan and their contribution not only to the domestic and care economy, but also to other male dominated employment sectors.

Recommended Readings:

  • Agarwal, A. (2006) Migrant Women and Work, Sage Publications, India.
  • Barker, D. K. and Susan F. Feiner. (2004) Liberating Economics: Feminist Perspectives on Families, Work, and Globalization, University of Michigan Press.
  • Bhuimali, A. and S. Anil Kumar (2007) Women in the face of Globalisation, Serials Publications, New Delhi, India.
  • Dubeck, P. J. and Dana Dunn. (2006) Workplace/Women’s Place: An Anthology, Third Edition. Roxbury Publishing Company.
  • Ghadially, R. (2007) Urban Women in Contemporary India: A Reader, Sage Publications, New Delhi, India.
  • Sharma, N. (2006) Dynamics of Women and Development, Altaf Publications, New Delhi, India.
11. CGS-211: Women’s Voices in Literature

Course Objectives: 

  • To introduce students with feminist literary theories and works of women writers.
  • To analyse how women’s voices in literature (prose and poetry) significantly represent social realities of the world in a unique way.
  • To equip students with critical analysis of works of women writers in Pakistan.

Course description:

Women’s contribution in literature (prose and poetry) represents not only voices of resistance but also voices of merit and scholarship. Throughout history women have significantly contributed in the production of literature. The course will expose students with literary theoretical explanations and its various aspects. Feminist literary criticism not only enriches the existing literary debates but also provides a unique worldview and perspective towards world. These feminist endeavours would enable students to see how women through their works in prose and poetry interpreted the social realities of world. Women’s voice in literature exposes the relationship between cultural traditions and literature in general.

More specifically this course will also introduce students with the works of famous women writers in fiction, poetry and other related literature fields. Special focus of this course will be on contemporary women writers and their works and also famous writers of history. The course will include works of various women writers from Pakistan including the works of Khatija Mastoor, Rasheed Jehan, Faheemida Riaz, ,Ismat Chughtai and Parveen Shakir to emphasize how these women have contributed in understanding the issues of daily life in the world.

Course Contents:

  • Introduction to basic concepts of literature and arts
  • Studying literary theories: history, contributions and contemporary state
  • Feminism and women movement: voices of resistance in literature
  • Women and literature: their role, contribution and status
  • Feminist literary criticism: Overview and analysis
  • World cultural traditions and literature: prose and poetry
  • Women voices in literature of South Asia: historical and contemporary times
  • Women voices in literature of Pakistan: specific works

Recommended readings:

  • Boehmer, E. (2005) Stories of Women: Gender and Narrative in the Post-Colonial Nation. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  • Didur, J. (2006) Unsettling Partition: Literature, Gender, Memory. New York: Pearson Publications.
  • Duran, J. (2007) Women in Philosophy and Literature. London: Ashgate Publishing.
  • Fisher, J., & Silber, E. S. (2003) Women in Literature: Reading through the Lens of Gender. London: Greenwood publications.
  • Goodman, L. (1996) Literature and Gender. London: Routledge.
  • Hussain, Y. (2017) Writing Diaspora: South Asian women, Culture and Ethnicity. London: Taylor and Francis.
  • Naheed, K. (2005) Distance of a Shout. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
  • Pemberton, K., & Nijhawan, M. (2009). Shared Idioms, Sacred Symbols, and the Articulation of Identities in South Asia. London: Routledge.
  • Rooney, E. (2006) The Cambridge Companion to Feminist Literary Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
12. CGS-212: Gender and Law

Course Objectives: 

  • Students will be equipped with critical knowledge of key feminist legal theories.
  • Students will analyse and also critically engage with the interaction of law, society, and gender
  • They will also explore both the potential benefits and limitations of legal system in Pakistan

Course Description:

This course focuses on linkage between gender and law. It deals with national laws in Pakistan, especially those relating to women, and the theoretical understanding of feminist jurisprudential theories. Thus, it aims at equipping students with legal literacy as well as the skills to critically analyze structural causes that lead to laws. In this context, the course focuses on primary concepts, methodologies, and debates in feminist legal theory such as the meaning of equality, the public/private divide, concepts of objectivity and neutrality, and how law is can both lead to structural inequalities as well as social change.

Finally, the course will also examine landmark legal cases at the national level that have led to significant change and reiteration of women’s rights such as the right to education and mobility. Overall, the course purports to examine Pakistan’s legal structure, particularly laws that pertain to construction of gender roles through the lens of feminist jurisprudential thought. Thus, the course will analyze and critically engage with the interaction of law, society, and gender while exploring both the potential and limitations of Pakistan’s legal system.

Course Contents:

  • A conceptual and a practical link between gender, law and human rights
  • Understanding need for law in society
  • Sources of law (customs, shariah, common, equity)
  • Types of law (constitutional, customary, Islamic, common)
  • The process of law making in Pakistan
  • Judicial system of Pakistan

Federal and provincial HR mechanisms in Pakistan

  • Access to justice, law courts and legal remedy
  • Constitutional safeguards and fundamental rights guaranteed in 1973 Constitution of Pakistan
  • Informal, parallel legal system in Pakistan

 Family Laws in Pakistan

  • Marriage, polygamy, talaq, khula, maintenance, dowry and gifts, parents, child custody, guardianship, will and inheritance

Shariah laws in Pakistan

  • Law of evidence; rajamqisas and diyat
  • Comparative study of Hudood Laws and Women Protection Bill

Labor Laws in Pakistan

  • Wages, collective bargaining, maternity leave, protection against harassment at the workplace
  • Third gender person’s access to fundamental human rights in Pakistan
  • Legal and political barriers to the protection and promotion of third gender person’s human rights in Pakistan

Recommended Readings:

  • Bartlett, Rhode, Grossman. (2013) Gender and the Law: Theory, Doctrine, Commentary, 6th edition. New York: Aspen Publishers.
  • Becker, Bowman, Nourse, Yuracko. (2007) Feminist Jurisprudence.(3rd edition). Minnesota: West Publishing
  • Gazdar, A.,Sohail, W. (n.d.) Know your Rights. Shirkat Gah (
  • Jillani, H., Ahmad, E. M. (2004) The Legal System and Institutional Responses in Pakistan, Law and Women's Rights in South Asia. In S. Goonesekere (Ed.), Law and Women's Rights in South Asia. New Delhi: Sage Publications.
  • Johan, G. (1990) Cultural Violence. Journal of Peace Research 27 no. 3 , 291-305.
  • Levit, N., R.M. Verchick, R. (2006) Feminist Legal Theory: A Primer. New York: New York University Press.
  • Mindie , L.-B. (2007) Everyday Harm, Domestic Violence, Court Rites, and Cultures of Reconciliation, . Chapter 4 “Court Rites” and Chapter 5 “Time and the Legal (Mindie , 2007) Process.”. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
  • Nancy, C. (2001) Chapter 2: “Perfecting Community Rules with State Laws and Chapter 8 Public Sanctity for a Private Realm”. In Public Vows: A History of Marriage and The Nation,. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Rosen , L. (2008). Law as Culture: An Invitation, Preface, Introduction, Chapter 2 “Creating Facts. Princeton University Press
13. CGS-213: Women and Science

Course Objectives: 

  • To develop students’ understanding of the “scientific method”
  • To expose students to critiques of science, scientific reasoning and rationality from a feminist perspective
  • To explore the connections between colonialism, the scientific method/discourse, and patriarchy.
  • To gain exposure to feminist historians and philosophers of science.

Course description:

This course will begin by exploring the basic tenets of scientific rationality and Enlightenment thought, locating its emergence in its spatial-historical context. We will move on to historical overview of the colonial period and introduce the main critiques of science that emerged as a response to colonialism, with a focus on post-colonial and Marxist-feminist critiques. The last section of the course will explore philosophical debates around science and the scientific method, and introduce students to some of the main debates taking place in this realm. This course will appeal to those interested in colonial history, feminist theory, and the philosophy of science.

Course Contents:

  • Introduction to modernity as a historically, geographically and culturally specific phenomenon
  • The ‘scientific revolution’ and its main tenets
  • Introduction to the ‘scientific method’ and its implications for knowledge production
  • Introduction to the major social theories emerging from the modern period (liberalism, Marxism, feminism)
  • Historicizing the origins of patriarchy (as emerging with the development of class society)
  • Modern patriarchies versus pre-modern patriarchies (continuities and change)

Recommended Readings:

  • Imber, B., & Tuana, N. (1988) Feminist Perspectives on Science. Hypatia, 3(1), 139-144. Retrieved from
  • Fausto-Sterling, A. (1997) Women's Studies and Science. Women's Studies Quarterly, 25(1/2), 183-189. Retrieved from
  • Hirsh, E., Olson, G., & Harding, S. (1995) Starting from Marginalized Lives: A Conversation with Sandra Harding. JAC, 15(2), 193-225. Retrieved from
  • Lederman, M. and Bartsch, I. (2001) The Gender and Science Reader. London: Routledge.
  • Longino, H. (1988) Science, Objectivity, and Feminist Values. Feminist Studies, 14(3), 561-574. doi:10.2307/3178065
  • Mies, M. (2014) Colonization and House wifization. In Understanding Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale: Women in the International Division of Labour. Zed Books. (Originally published 1986)
  • Singleton, V. (1996) Feminism, Sociology of Scientific Knowledge and Postmodernism: Politics, Theory and Me. Social Studies of Science, 26(2), 445-468. Retrieved from
14. CGS-214: Gender and Politics

Course Objectives: 

  • To establish that politics have been a gendered domain
  • To explore multiple understandings of, and perspectives on, ‘politics’ in literature
  • To introduce students to past and contemporary examples of feminist politics in Pakistan
  • To articulate differences in politics from varying perspectives of gender, class, nation, and region
  • To critically analyse contemporary challenges of patriarchy and heteronormativity within Pakistani politics

Course description:

This course will begin by tracing how theoretical and philosophical understandings of politics have changed over time. It will begin by introducing students to the continuity and differences between liberal, Marxist, feminist, and post-structuralist perspectives on politics.

The course will move on to a deeper exploration of feminist understandings of, and approaches to, politics, and introduce the (debated) distinction between “women’s movements” and “feminist movements”. Students will be asked to explore the gender politics of different social groups and of women across different classes. They will also be encouraged to think in non-binaristic terms and critically examine the marginalization and ‘othering’ of queer and transgender people. The course will examine the differences (and/or similarities) between gender politics of left-wing, liberal/populist, right-wing/religious parties and groups, and ethnic-nationalist politics in the Pakistani context. This course will appeal to those interested in political theory, social movements, feminism, and understanding the intersections between class, gender, and other axes of oppression.

Course Contents:

  • Understanding concepts of pre-modern and modern in politics
  • Distinguishing between ‘political’ and ‘politics’ as a formal, distinct sphere (which comprises various shades of politics such as resistance politics, armed struggle, electoral/parliamentary politics, etc.)
  • Unpacking the term “the personal is political”
  • Feminist critiques of liberal politics (the sexual contract)
  • Basic concepts and distinguishing features of Marxist-feminism
  • Exploring the terms (and debates around the definition of) “women’s movements” and “feminist movements”
  • Tracing, locating, and analysing women’s participation in the political sphere in Pakistan across class, caste, region, and ethnicity
  • Discussing case studies of women’s, queer & transgender persons’ resistance movements in Pakistan
  • Exploring debates around religion/secularism and women’s agency

Recommended Readings:

  • Aronowitz, S. (1989) Postmodernism and Politics. Social Text,(21), 46-62. doi:10.2307/827808
  • Barrett, M. and Phillips, A. (1992) Destabilizing Theory: Contemporary Feminist Debates. Stanford University Press.
  • Franceschet, S. (2003) "State Feminism" and Women's Movements: The Impact of Chile's Servicio Nacional de la Mujer on Women's Activism. Latin American Research Review, 38(1), 9-40. Retrieved from
  • Hirschkind, C., & Mahmood, S. (2002) Feminism, the Taliban, and Politics of Counter-Insurgency. Anthropological Quarterly,75(2), 339-354. Retrieved from
  • Isaac, J. (2014) From the Editor: Gender and Politics. Perspectives on Politics, 12(1), 1-6. Retrieved from
  • Iqtidar, H. (2011) Secularizing Islamists?: Jama'at-e-Islami and Jama'at-ud-Da'wa in urban Pakistan. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Jamal, A. (2005) Feminist 'Selves' and Feminism's 'Others': Feminist Representations of Jamaat-e-Islami Women in Pakistan. Feminist Review, (81), 52-73. Retrieved from
  • Marcus, S. (2005) Queer Theory for Everyone: A Review Essay. Signs, 31(1), 191-218. doi:10.1086/432743
  • Pateman, C. (1988) The sexual contract. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.
  • Velayudhan, M. (2009) Women's Land Rights in South Asia: Struggles and Diverse Contexts. Economic and Political Weekly, 44(44), 74-79. Retrieved from
  • Warnke, G. (2005) Race, Gender, and Antiessentialist Politics. Signs, 31(1), 93-116. doi:10.1086/431373
15. CGS-215: Gender and Human Rights

Course Objectives: 

  • Comprehend the origins of modern human rights
  • Understand the origins of gender equality and its link to human rights
  • Identify gaps and shortcomings of existing human rights instruments using a gender lens
  • Demonstrate awareness of international human rights instruments and sensitivity to larger social and political implications with respect to gender and human rights.

Course Description:

Gender equality has gained a secure position within international approaches to, and discourses on, development and human rights. Nevertheless, it took decades of advocacy for gendered diversities to become effectively acknowledged as relevant to the international human rights system. In this process, the recognition that “women’s rights are human rights” played a central role. In response, legal and normative instruments have been introduced to address the marginalization of women and girls, such as the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Increasingly, other issues relevant to gender equality are gaining attention, for instance those pertaining to sexual orientation and gender identity and the role of men and boys in achieving gender equality. Significant steps continue to be taken to build human rights system that recognizes the need for gender equality and diversity for securing human rights for all.

This course provides a general introduction to the origin and evolution of the concept of gender equality within the international human rights system. It provides a foundational understanding of the centrality of gender equality to human rights discourse generally and how this is addressed within the UN human rights system specifically. Students will gain an overview of the various legal and normative frameworks that promote women’s rights, address gender identities, and advance practical approaches to securing gender equality. The course will also examine critical concepts such as intersectionality and cultural relativism as they relate to the enforcement of existing international approaches to advancing gender equality and human rights.

Course Contents:

  • Basic principles of human rights framework
  • Origin and evolution of gender equality and its link to human rights
  • Women’s rights are human rights: Evolution of women’s rights
  • Gender-based violence as a human rights issue
  • An overview of the UN system

International Normative Framework for Gender Equality and Human Rights

  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
  • International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
  • International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)
  • Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)
  • Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
  • Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
  • International Labor Organization’s Major Conventions
  • Critique of the gender and human rights agenda
  • Advancing gender equality: Strategies and Approaches

Recommended Readings:

  • Afkhami, Mahnaz (2000) Respect, Protect, Fulfill Women’s HumanRights: Government Accountability for Abuse by Non-State Actors, Tauris Publishers, London, UK.
  • Afkhami, Mahnaz (1995) Faith and Freedom: Women’s Human Rights in the Muslim World, I.B.Tauris Publishers, London, UK.
  • An-Naim, Abdullahi (1993) Human Rights and Cross Cultural Perspective, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
  • An-Naim, Abdulhai, Jerald Cort, Henry Jansen, Hendrik Vroom,eds. (1995) HumanRights and Religious Values: An Uneasy Relationship, William Eerdma Publishing, MI,USA.
  • Ateek, Naim Stifan (2001) Justice and Only Justice, Orbis, New York, USA.
  • Augsburger, David W. (1981) Caring Enough to Forgive: True Forgiveness, Herald Press, Scottsdale, USA.
  • Bailie,Gil (1997) Violence Unveiled: Humanity at the Cross Roads, The crossroad Publishing, NY, USA.
  • Behera, Navnita Chadha (2006) Gender, Conflict and Migration, Sage Publishers, New Delhi, India.
  • Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, G.A. res. 39/46, [annex, 39 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 51) at 197, U.N. Doc. A/39/51 (1984)], entered into force June 26, 1987.
  • Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, G.A. res. 34/180, 34 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 46) at 193, U.N. Doc. A/34/46, entered into force Sept. 3, 1981.
  • Convention on the Rights of the Child, G.A. res.44/25, annex, 44 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No.49) at 167, U.N. Doc. A/44/49 (1989), entered into force Sept. 2 1990.
  • Davis, Nira Yuval, and Pnina Werbner (ed.) (1999) Women, Citizenship and Difference, Zed Books, London, UK.
  • Dunleavy, P. and B. O’Leary (1987) Theories of the State, McMillan, London, UK.
  • Faizal, Farah, and Swarna Rajagopalan (2005) Women, Security South Asia, Sage Publications, New Delhi, India.
  • Fraser, Arvonne S. (1999) “Becoming Human: The Origins and Development of Women’s Human Rights.” Human Rights Quarterly 21(4): 853-906.
  • Freire, Paulo. (1970) Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Continuum Publishers, NY, USA.
  • International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No.16) at 52, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 999 U.N.T.S. 171, entered into force Mar. 23, 1976.
  • International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, G.A.res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No.16) at 49, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 993 U.N.T.S. 3, entered into force Jan. 3, 1976.
  • Jatava, D.R. (2007) Violation of Human Rights (Fact & Foes), ABD Publishers, Jaipur, India.
  • Kandioti, Deniz (ed.) (1994) Women, Islam and the State, Mcmillan, London, UK.
  • Lyth, A. (2001). Where Are the Women?-A Gender Approach to Refugee Law, LL.M Thesis, Lund University, Sweden.
  • Okin, Susan Moller (1989). Justice, Gender and the Family, Basic Books, NY, USA.
  • Ruddick, Sara (1989). Maternal Thinking: Towards a Politics of Peace, The Women Press, London, UK.
  • Talwar, Prakash (2005).  Human Rights, Gayan Books, New Delhi, India.
  • The      International    Labour Organization’s Fundamental Conventions.(2003). Retrieved from documents/publication/wcms_095895.pdf.
  • Universal declaration of human rights, G.A. res.217 A (III), U.N. Doc A/810 at 71 (1948).
  • Williams, Louise (2002). Wives, Mistresses and Matriarchs, Phoenix Press, London, UK.
  • Yuval,Davis, Nira (1997). Gender and Nation, Sage Publications, London, UK.
16. CGS-216: Gender and Labor Movements

Course Objectives:  

  • To equip students with an understanding of the gendered division of labor and about women’s paid and unpaid work
  • To enable them to situate women’s struggles within the broader labor movement: specific issues they organise against, and the discrimination they face within the movement
  • To make the students  aware of specific ways in which gender intersects with class, and the related issues that surface within labor movements

Course Description: 

Studies of labour movements tend to treat workers as one homogenous class, united in their interests. This course focuses specifically on the intersection of gender and class, and looks at the role played by women in labour movements, the kinds of issues they address and struggles they face as members of a workforce and a labour movement. This course will start by historicising women in the work force; how women entered the formal work force, and what jobs they occupied. It will look at the multifaceted ways that workers resist and organise in varying political contexts, as well as roots of job discrimination. It will examine women’s paid and unpaid work, the origins of a gendered division of labour, and the historical involvement of women in organised movements for worker’s rights. Additionally, the course discusses specific issues women have within the workforce, and what labour movements do (or do not do) to address them, and the kind of discrimination and exclusion faced by women within the movements.

Course Content:

  • Gendered division of labour
  • Intersection of Labour and Class
  • Historicizing women in workforce
  • Issues of exclusion
  • Politics of unions, ethnicity and gender

Recommended Readings: 

  • Broadbent, K., & Ford, M. (2008) Women and Labour Organizing in Asia: Diversity, Autonomy and Activism. London: Routledge.
  • Federici, S. (2012) Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist struggle. Oakland, CA: PM Press.
  • Foley, J. R., & Baker, P. L. (2014) Unions, Equity, and the Path to Renewal. Vancouver: UBC Press.
  • Frager, R. A. (2016) Sweatshop Strife: Class, Ethnicity, and Gender in the Jewish Labour Movement of Toronto, 1900-1939.
  • In Harcourt, W., & In Escobar, A. (2005) Women and the Politics of Place. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.
  • Kessler-Harris, A. (2007) Gendering Labor History. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
  • Ose, K. (1995) Where Women are Leaders: The Sewa Movement in India. New Delhi: Vistaar Publications.
17. CGS-217: Gender and Governance

Course Objectives: 

  • To familiarize students with the historical context, set of institutions, and processes associated with the term ‘governance’ in the contemporary era
  • To explore the links between gender and governance
  • To introduce and critically analyse Pakistan-based examples of “gender-sensitive governance”

Course description:

This course will introduce students to the concept of governance from a political economy perspective, contextualizing its emergence in the era of neoliberal globalization. It will identify key players associated with governance on the global and national levels, explore the deployment of gender in governance discourse and practices, and seek out the views of women and other marginalized groups on “gender-sensitive” and “participatory” governance. This course will help students extend the theoretical knowledge gained in the earlier course on Gender and Development, and equip them with alternative perspectives to governance and development. The course will feature guest lectures from differently positioned actors in the governance discourse, and encourage students’ outreach and exploration skills.

Course contents:

  • Historicizing the term ‘governance’
  • Exploring the shift from ‘government’ to ‘governance’
  • Identifying the different levels of governance (global, national, local)
  • Identifying key players in governance and their roles
  • Exploring the theoretical and practical links between gender and governance
  • Evaluating the impacts of gender-sensitive governance in Pakistan

Recommended Readings:

  • Biccum, A. (2005) Development and the 'New' Imperialism: A Reinvention of Colonial Discourse in DFID Promotional Literature. Third World Quarterly, 26(6), 1005-1020. Retrieved from
  • Cleaver, F., & Hamada, K. (2010) 'Good' water governance and gender equity: A troubled relationship. Gender and Development, 18(1), 27-41. Retrieved from
  • Hull, M. (2012) Government of Paper: The Materiality of Bureaucracy in Urban Pakistan. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Manicom, L. (2001) Globalising 'Gender' in: Or as: Governance? Questioning the Terms of Local Translations. Agenda: Empowering Women for Gender Equity, (48), 6-21. doi:10.2307/4066509
  • Panda, S.M. (ed.) (2008). Engendering Governance Institutions: State, Market and Civil Society. Delhi: Sage Publications.
  • Scott, J.C. (1998) Seeing Like a State. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Wimpelmann, T. (2017) The Pitfalls of Protection: Gender, Violence, and Power in Afghanistan. Oakland, California: University of California Press. Retrieved from
18. CGS-218: Statistics in Gender Studies

Course Objectives: 

  • To help students understand the basic concepts of statistics, its application, forms, and significance with special focus of its application within discipline of social sciences
  • To equip students with tools of quantitative research methods and highlight the importance of data managing software like SPSS and others
  • To understand social world, issues and problems, through application of statistics and quantitative data methods

Course Description:

The course will aim to build basic knowledge of statistics among students. It includes definition of statistics including other statistical aspects will also be explored throughout the course.  Statistics for social sciences as a component will be given special emphasis in order to engage students with its application in social world research. Statistics as course for social science students involves collection, interpretation, understanding, presenting of social data for many purposes. Quantitative data analysis gives a unique vantage point for social scientists in understanding the social issues of the world.  The application of statistical tools will also enable students to explore various dimensions of social research.

The students will also be introduced not only with collection of data but also the effective ways through which the data can be presented and interpreted. This would thus assist students with holistic understanding of research problem.  The course consists of introduction of statistics, presentation of data, measures and tendency and dispersion, probability, sampling and distribution, hypothesis and testing as its main focus.

Course Contents

Introduction defining statistics

  • Importance of statistics in Gender studies
  • Descriptive statistics and graphic representation of data
  • Types of data
  • Frequency distribution: cumulative frequency distribution
  • Histogram, Polygon, Pictograph, Bar Diagram, Pie Chart
  • Measures of central tendency
  • Measures of dispersion
  • Mean, Mode, and Median
  • Range, Mean Deviation, Quartile Deviation, Variance, and Standard Deviation

Normal & Binomial Distribution

  • Normal distribution: properties and application
  • Binomial distribution: properties and application

Sampling Distributions and related concepts

  • Sample design and sampling frame, bias, sampling and non-sampling errors, sampling with and without replacement
  • Determining sample size, sampling distributions for single mean and proportion
  • Difference of means and proportions as basic concepts regarding probability and binomial distribution and sampling

Testing Hypotheses

Inferential Statistics

  • Basic assumptions/ rationale and when to use which inferential statistic
  • Critical region, one tailed & two tailed tests
  • Type One and Type Two (I & II) Errors, Level of Significance: concept of alpha and P value
  • Theoretical explanation of Two-way ANOVA & multiple regressions

Parametric Statistics

  • Rationale and basic considerations/ assumptions
  • T-test analysis: Independent sample, paired sample, one sample analysis of Variance: One way ANOVA, Two Way ANOVA Correlation,
  • Regression: linear regression, multiple regression correlation & causation, Pearson product-moment Correlation, Z-Test

Non-parametric statistics

  • Rationale and basic considerations/assumptions
  • Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation, Chi-Square Test (Contingency Table and Proportions)
  • Yates Correction, Non Parametric tests, Wilcoxon test, Mann Whitney test, Sign test, Kruskal Wallis

Course Description:

Field research is introduced in the sixth semester. Students are placed in with agencies, i.e. (NGOs/ CBOs/ GOs/ Print & Electronic media/ hospitals/ industries/provincial Assemblies etc.). The assignment records have to completed & checked up by the respective supervisors. At the end of semester, the students are assessed on the basis of their daily records. A viva-voice is also to be held at the end of the course.

Course Contents:

Introduction of research field training in organizational setting

  • Need & importance of research field training for students with special reference to case studies application
  • Definition, purpose, principles, technique and steps of case studies as a problem solving method in feminist perspective

Basic information about trainings, organizations/institutions

  • Background and nature of institutions/organizations
  • Establishment of infrastructure and management of training organization
  • Learn services, programmes and facilities
  • Problems and plans for manpower, equipment and financial resource

Training programmes for students

  • Training methodology manual of field training
  • Training duration and certification

 Training assignments

  • Individual assignments, group assignments, academic assignments
  • Seminars, lectures, group discussions, conferences, workshop etc

Record preparation

  • Daily diary
  • Process record
  • Minute book
20. CGS-220: RESEARCH PROJECT / THESIS (two major courses)

Elective / Optional Courses

1. CGS-301: Gender and Education

Course Objective:

  • To analyse nationally and internationally gender biased conditions in current education systems from a gender perspective.
  • To analyse gender gaps and disparities in education and to identify the causes of low female literacy
  • To see the relationship of low female literacy and engagement in the job market
  • To identify the connection between gendered education and health

Course Description:

This course examines the ways in which education policies affect women and the changes in those structures and policies. Topics include overview of education in South Asia and the world, policies in Pakistan and plans regarding women’s education in Pakistan. The course will also delineate gender disparities in education and role of NGOs in promoting education. Besides this, the course highlights the importance of women’s education and discusses gender disparities at policy making and implementation level. This course suggests the ways in which literacy among women could be increased.

Course Contents:

Introduction to Education

  • Definition and meaning of education
  • Aims of education
  • Types of education: formal and informal

Overview of Gender and Education

  • Origin and evolution of women’s education
  • A conceptual link between education and gender

Gender and Education in Pakistan

  • Gender hierarchies in schools
  • Gender and higher education
  • National policies and plans

 National and International Organizations’ Role and Gender Equality in Education

  • The role of UN agencies
  • The role of NGOs and INGOs
  • The way forward

Recommended Readings: 

  • Batley, Richard and Rose, Pauline. (2010) Collaboration in Delivering Education Relations between Governments and NGOs in South Asia. Development in Practice, 20(4/5), pp. 579-585
  • Chaudhry, Imran Sharif. (2007) Gender Inequality in Education and Economic Growth: Case Study of Pakistan. Pakistan Horizon, 60(4), pp. 81-91.
  • Christine Skelton , Francis, Becky and Lisa Smulyan . The SAGE Handbook of Gender and Education. SAGE publication 2455 Teller Road, Thousands Oaks, California
  • Dib, Claudio Zaki. (1988) Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Education: Concepts/ Applicability. Presented at the “Inter American Conference on Physics Education”
  • Leach, Fiona. (1998) Gender, Education and Training: An International Perspective. Gender and Development, 6(2), pp. 9-18
  • Oaxtepec, Mexico (1987) Cooperative Networks in Physics Education – Conference Proceedings 173. Pp. 300-315. New York: American Institute of Physics
  • Osler, A. (2006) Excluded girls: interpersonal, institutional and structural violence in schooling. Gender and Education, 18, 6, pp. 571-589
  • Paechter, C. (1998) Education the Other: Gender, Power and Schooling. London: The Falmer Press
  • Paechter, C. (2006) Masculine Femininities/Feminine Masculinities: Power, Identities And Gender. Gender and Education, 18(3), pp. 253-263.
  • Rafi, Shahrukh. (2003) Participation via Collective Action in Government and NGO Schools in Pakistan. Development in Practice, 13(4), pp. 361-376.
  • Siddique, Shahid. (2012) Education Policies in Pakistan: Politics, Projections, and Practices: Allama Iqbal Press, Islamabad, Pakistan
  • Ullah, Hazir. and Skelton, Christine. (2016) Social Reproduction of Gender Hierarchies in Sports through Sc Education, 36(1), pp.131-144
2. CGS-302: Classical Feminist Theories

Course Objectives: 

  • To develop an understanding among students about classical feminist thoughts
  • To introduce students with key concepts of feminism while focusing on diverse school of thoughts and waves of feminism in the world

Course Description: 

The objective of this course is to make students familiar with theories of feminism and to develop analytical skills to assess their relevance in the social context of Pakistan. The course will examine major theories of classical feminist thought. The course will have a particular focus on the development of feminist theories in early times with the advent of feminist movements across the world. Moreover, this course will provide understanding about the classical text appeared in the different era of feminist struggles. This course will lay the foundation for contemporary feminist theories. The nature of issues raised and the strategies adopted in the first, second and third wave of feminisms will also be examined .Additionally, it will help the students to understand and comprehend the significance of the classical text in recent times. Similarly, contextual understanding of the classical though in the context of Pakistan would help for more relative learning outcomes among the students.

Course Contents:

  • Feminism
  • Patriarchy
  • Types of Feminism
  • History of Feminism
  • Waves of Feminism
  • Post- Feminists
  • Classical feminists

Recommended Readings:

  • Charles H.Kerr& Co. (1884) The Origin of Family, Priat Property and The State
  • Firestone, S. (1970) The Dialectic of Sex. Willima Morrow and Company
  • Friedan, B. (1963) The Feminine Mystique. W.W. Norton and Co.
  • Mill, J. S. (1869) The Subjection of Women . British Library
  • Millat, K. (1968) Sexual Politics. University of Illinois Press
  • Oakely, A. (2015) Sex,Gender and Society . Ashgate
  • Pateman, C. (1988) The Sexual Contract. Standford Unviersity Press
  • Pilcher, J., & Whelehan, I. (2004) Fifty Key Concepts in Gender Studies. London: SAGE
  • West, G. p. (2002) Italian Feminist Theory and Practice: Equality and Sexual Difference . Dickinson University Press
  • Wollstonecraft, M. (1792) A Vindication of the Rights of Woman . London: J.Johnson
  • Wolpe, A. K. (2013) Feminism and materialism : women and modes of production. Newyork: Routledge
  • Woolf, V. (1989) A Roomm of one's own . Harcourt, Inc.
  • Tong, R. (2014) Feminist Thought: A More comprehensive Introduction. New York: Westview Press
3. CGS-303: Contemporary Feminist Theories

Course Objectives

  • To develop an understanding about contemporary thinkers in feminist theories
  • To analyse the role of feminism in transcending the agenda of feminist theories in global context
  • To contextualize feminism theory in Pakistan and also highlight the activity of feminism as women movements in South Asia and Pakistan in specific

Course Description:

The course is designed to trace the history of feminist thought and action in the world and also to see women’s struggle for their rights through different women movements. The main emphasis of the course will be to bridge the gap between theory and action and see how feminism and women movements are connected.

In this course, the intersection between feminist theories, feminist research and women’s movements globally will be explored. Moreover, in contemporary times, different issues have emerged after third wave which impact contemporary feminism on men’s studies. Similarly, this course will help to understand different phases of transition in the concepts and schools of thoughts.

Course contents:

  • Intersectionality
  • Feminism and materialism
  • Men’s feminism
  • Transversal politics
  • Feminist research
  • Women’s movement in global scenario
  • South Asian feminist struggles
  • Pakistan women’s movement and feminism

Recommended Readings:

  • Chesler, P. (2006) The Death of Feminism: What's Next in the Struggle for Women's Freedom. St. Martin's Press
  • Chrisman, P. W. (1994) Colonial Discourse and Post-Colonial Theory: A Reader. Columbia University press
  • G.Smith, B. (2000) Global Feminisms Since 1945 / edited by Bonnie G. Smith. London: Routledge
  • Groves, C. J. (2010) Introducing Feminism: A Graphic Guide . UK: National Book Network
  • Hook, B. (1984) Feminist Theory From Margin to Centre . Newyork: Library of Congress
  • Jones, S. J. (1998) Contmeporary Feminist Theories . Edinburgh University Press
  • Mohanty, C. T. (2006) Feminism without Borders, Decolonizing Theory, Practicing Solidarity. Duke: UP
  • Ngozi, C. (2014) We Should All be Feminists . Vintage
  • Oakley, A. (2015) Sex,Gender and Society. Ashgate
  • West, G. P. (2002) Italian Feminist Theory and Practice: Equality and Sexual Difference . Dickinson University Press
  • Wolpe, A. K. (2013) Feminism and Materialism : Women and Modes of Production. NewYork: Routledge
  • Zia, A. S. (2018) Faith and Feminism in Pakistan: Religious Agency or Secular Autonomy? Sussex: Sussex Academic Press
4. CGS-304: Women and Entrepreneurship

Course Objectives: 

  • To introduce students that how does gender shape the process of becoming a successful entrepreneur
  • To build an understanding of how women navigate the challenges of balancing work and family
  • To equip them to learn the skills required for moving into progressively more senior leadership roles

Course Description:

Historically, women have been h less likely to take on leadership roles in business than men. This disparity persists even though there is a split in today’s workforce between female and male workers. This course will give an overview of the initiatives introduced by national and international machinery such as SMEDA to promote women entrepreneurs.  Further, it will also equip them with practical tools in order to become the better entrepreneurs. This course will also cover the issues that women’s leadership has attracted, as women have expanded their leadership presence and contributions in a wide variety of fields. Whether on corporate boards, senior management, or political and community leadership, evidence suggests that female leaders bring important skills, values, and perspectives to contemporary challenges and that economic and social benefits flow from more gender diverse and inclusive leadership cultures.

Course Contents:

  • Conceptual framework on women entrepreneurship
  • National machinery (SMEDA) and its contribution and initiatives for Entrepreneurship
  • Community and political leadership
  • Start up plans for entrepreneurs
  • Corporate boards and women
  • Senior management and role of women
  • Glass ceiling
  • Case studies of successful female entrepreneurs
  • Female enterprise in new economy

Recommended Readings: 

  • Centre, I. G. (2017) Constraints to Female Entrepreneurship in Pakistan: The Role of Women’s Goals and Aspirations. International Growth Centre
  • Hughes, K. D., Jennings J. E., Brush C., Carter S., & Welter F. (2012) Extending Women’s Entrepreneurship Research in New Directions. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 36(3), 429-442
  • Hughes, K. D. & Jennings J. E. (2012) Global Women's Entrepreneurship Research: Diverse Settings, Questions and Approaches. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar
  • Hughes, K. D. (2006) Female Enterprise in the New Economy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press
  • Jeanings, J. A. (2013) Research on Women Entrepreneurs: Challenges to (and form) the Broader Entrepreneurs Literature. The Academy of Management Annals,  7(1), 663-715
  • Jennings, J.E., Jennings, P. D., & Sharifian, M. (2016) Living the Dream? Assessing the ‘Entrepreneurship as Emancipation’ Perspective in a Developed Region. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 40(1), 81-110
  • Karen D. Hughes, J. E. (2015) Women Entrepreneurship. Oxford Bibliographies
  • Kerala, G. O. (2013) An  Analytical  Study  Of The Impact of  Women  Entrepreneurship Development Measures Promoted by  the Government and  Financial Institutions in  Kerla. Goverment of Kerala.
  • Strohmeyer, R., Tonoyan, V., & Jennings, J. E. (2017) Jacks-(and Jills)-of-all-trades: On Whether, How and Why Gender Influences Firm Innovativeness. Journal of Business Venturing32(5), 498-518
  • Toubiana, M. (2015) Out of the Shadows: Shedding New Light on Stigmatized Work and Workers. Academy of Management, Vancouver
5. GS-305: Psychology of Men and Masculinity

Course Objectives:  

  • Understand the masculine side of gender and its significance
  • Recognize male roles, male role strains, and gender biases towards men
  • Comprehend masculine ideology and adherence to it
  • Become familiar with different strategies of stress management and conflict resolution utilized across gender
  • Appreciate and understand the issues related to the development of life span of men as sons, brothers, husbands and fathers

Course Description:

The course explores the biological, sociological, and cultural influences on gender roles of boys and men. It also examines gender role socialization of men and masculinity ideology. The role of male roles and effects of their health and behaviour is also discussed.

Course Contents:

Introduction to Psychology of Men

Developmental Psychology of Men

  • Early childhood development of boys
  • Physical and psychological development of boys
  • Sociocultural development of boys to men


  • Puberty and mood changes in boys and expectations
  • Gender role strain paradigm
  • Gender role conflict theory

 Masculinity Ideology

  • Definition of masculinity and its effects on men and their relationships
  • Aggression, dominance, restrictive emotionality, self-reliance, breadwinner role
  • Positive masculinity and its socio cultural gains for all genders particularly women

Fatherhood: social challenges and constraints

  • Traditional fatherhood vs motherhood - the primary caretaker debate
  • Gender differences in fathering
  • Responsible fatherhood
  • Positive fathers and their achievements

Men’s mental and physical health

  • Psychological help seeking behaviour in relation to masculinity paradigm
  • Men’s physical health and body image
  • The intersection of race, ethnicity, and masculinities: progress, problems, and prospects
  • Other masculinities: gay, bisexual, transgender and androgynous masculinities

Recommended Readings: 

  • Levant, Ronald F. (2017) The Psychology of Men and Masculinities. Wong Y. Joel & Stephen R. Wester. APA Handbook of Men and Masculinities
  • Bergin, B. Mark Schoenberg & Garvey (1993) Growing up Male: The Psychology of Masculinity
  • Lee, Christina & R. Glynn (2002) Owens Open University Press, John M., Robertson, Woodford, Joyce; Lin, Chi-Wei; Danos, Kimberly K.; Hurst,       Mark (2001).The(Un)Emotional  Male:    Physiological,  Verbal  and Written Correlates of Expressiveness  in The Journal of Men's     Studies, Vol. 9, No. 3, Spring 2001
  • Christine,  Heifner  (1997)  The  Male  Experience  of  Depression   in Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, Vol. 33, No. 2, April-June 1997
  • Wicks, Stephen (1996) Warriors and Wildmen: Men, Masculinity and Gender, Bergin & Garvey
  • Praeger, Herbert Sussman (2012). Masculine Identities: The History and Meanings of Manliness
6. CGS-306: Social construction of Masculinities and Femininities

Course Objectives: 

  • Develop an awareness of masculinity and femininity
  • Examine various approaches to the cross-cultural study of masculinities and femininities
  • Examine the concept of masculinity and femininity in local, national and international context
  • Make students aware of changing role of gender in certain socio cultural perspectives
  • Think critically about participation in practices and institutions that perpetuates gender inequality
  • Make students able to devise strategies to create gender balance and healthy relationship among genders particularly in Pakistan

Course Description:

This course explores the meaning of masculinity and femininity and gendered relationships and aims to develop an awareness of the concept of masculinities and femininities. There is not one version of masculinity but rather multiple masculinities influenced by gender, race, ethnicity, class, nationality, sexuality, disability and subcultures. This course will also explore the approaches to the study of men/masculinities and women/femininities and identify key concepts and issues for in-depth analysis. It will explore how notions of femininity interact and influence masculinity and vice versa. The course is interdisciplinary and will use popular cultural texts, history, creative writing, art, and autobiography to aid our exploration. Masculinity studies emerged in response to the critical feminist discourses on women, femininity, and gender. This course will be interdisciplinary, drawing from research and writings in sociology literature, psychology, media and feminist theories. It will examine the ways in which interconnected social statuses (i.e. race, class, sexuality, disability, age, etc.) impact social constructions of femininities and masculinities.

Course Contents:

  • Overview of the concept of social construction of gender, masculinity and femininity
  • Gender socialization and the construction of masculinity and femininity
  • Men’s responses to the women’s movement
  • The emergence of masculinity studies as a discipline
  • The history and emergence of feminism, emergence of feminist theory
  • The history and emergence of masculinity studies as a discipline, men’s responses to the women’s movement.
  • Masculinity and male marginalization, the male marginalization thesis debates and its critiques
  • Masculinity, violence, and power relations, masculine identity, power and dominance
  • Hegemonic and subordinate masculinities, challenging male violence
  • Masculinities and femininities debate in cross-cultural perspective

Recommended Readings: 

  • Brittan, Arthur. (1989) Masculinity and Power. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Chafetz
  • Janet Saltzman. (2006) Handbook of the Sociology of Gender. USA: Springer
  • Murphy, Peter Francis. (2004) Feminism and Masculinities. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • Rezetti, Curran. (1995) Women Men and Society (3rded.) USA: Allyon &Bacon
  • Rashid, Tahmina. (2006) Contested Representation. Karachi: Oxford University Press
  • Rajan,  Rajeshwari,    Sunder. (1993).   Real     and      Imagined  Women; Gender, Culture and Post Colonialism. London: Routledge
  • Ruth, Sheila. (2001) Issues in Feminism: An Introduction to Women’s Studies (5th    Ed).  Mayfield Publishing
  • Wharton, Amy S. (2012) Sociology of Gender; An Introduction to Theory and Research (2nded). Wiley- Blackwell
7.CGS-307: Gender and Social Movements
  • To familiarize students with key issues and dynamics of social movements at both the global and national level
  • To introduce students with social theory in the context of social movements and to enable them to critically analyse current social movements

Course description:

This course will be split into two sections: the first will be a theoretical exploration of social movements in the global context and their intersectional nature, and the second section will comprise an analysis of selected social movements in the Pakistani context, with a focus on their gendered aspects.

In the first section, students will be introduced to social movements’ theory and research, using research conducted on social movements in Latin America and other parts of the world. This section will help students understand why and how social movements emerge by locating these movements in their global and local historical contexts. We will focus in particular on how the particular demographic constitution of social movements is shaped by multiple social indicators such as class, gender, race, and nation.

In the second section of the course, we will explore the emergence of social movements in Pakistan over the last few decades, contextualizing them in the changes that have occurred in the economy, culture, and politics of the particular regions (within Pakistan) where these movements emerged, as well as broader macro-level changes in the political economy of the country. Case studies of social movements such as the Okara peasants’ movement, the Pashtun Tahafuz Movement, and the Islamabad Katchi Abadi movement will be explored in this course.

Course Contents:

  • Social movements
  • Intersectionality
  • Identity construction
  • Forms of resistance
  • Development paradigms
  • Feminism(s)

Recommended Readings: 

  • Escobar, A. & Alvarez, S. eds. (2018). The Making of Social Movements in Latin America: Identity, Strategy, and Democracy. London: Routledge.
  • Kuumba, Bahati M. (2001). Gender and Social Movements. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
  • Mallick, A. (2018). Urban space and (the limits of) Middle Class Hegemony in Pakistan. Urban Geography. DOI: 10.1080/02723638.2018.1439555
  • Mumtaz, K. (2005). Advocacy for an End to Poverty, Inequality, and Insecurity: Feminist Social Movements in Pakistan. Gender & Development, 13:3, 63-69. DOI: 10.1080/13552070512331332298
  •  Saigol, R. (2010) Ownership Or Death: Women And Tenant Struggles In Pakistani Punjab. WISCOMP series on Revisioning and Engendering Security. Rupa & Company
8. CGS-308: Contemporary Sociological Theories

Course Objectives:  

  • Understand political and intellectual forces currently working in Pakistani society
  • Recognize their role to perform as emancipated individuals in society
  • Enhance analytical abilities to successfully perform tasks involving social and political challenging situations
  • Develop their own strategies regarding emancipation of women in Pakistan

Course Description:

The purpose of this course is to introduce contemporary sociological theories, which represent a set of assumptions concerning society and social phenomenon. These are based on the assumed existence of a social system as an independent entity in contrast to metaphysical or theological phenomenon by explaining the evolution of new system of thought in which metaphysical or theological explanations were replaced. For the students of gender studies program, it is inevitable to understand the role of social structure in the emergence and change in various forms of patriarchy in different societies. By studying different thematic approaches regarding structure and function of society and laws governing changes within these societies, they would be able enough to understand women oppression, subjugation and patriarchy in Pakistani society.

Course Contents:

 Evolution of contemporary sociological theories:

  • Factors responsible for emergence of modern sociological theories, political forces, intellectual forces, Theory and Process of theorizing; structure of modern theory Perspectives of different theorist and their influence on social life, contribution of women in early sociological theories

The Structure- Functional paradigm:

  • Emile Durkheim, Social facts, Division of labor, Collective representation, Suicide and social currents, Typology of society, Talcott Parsons, Social actions, Types of social actions, Meaning of system, Types of system, Typology of society, Analysis of the Structure-Functional Paradigm, Criticism on the Structure-Functional Paradigm

The Conflict Paradigm:

  • Karl Marx: Historical materialism, modes of production, The role of superstructure, ideologies, Social change; conflict of relations with authority and position, base of society on formation of groups like superior and subordinate, Antonio Gramsci: new Marxist, Analysis of the Conflict Paradigm, Criticism on the Conflict Paradigm

The Behaviorist paradigm:

  • Max Weber: Social action theory, types of action, types of inequality, types of power, ideal types and sociological theorizing, religion, capitalism and rationalization, George Simmel:, social process, social conflict, socialization, Charles H. Cooley: The relationship between individual and society

 Modernism/Post modernization paradigm:

  • From modernity to post modernity, social life in the twenty-first century, Anthony Giddens: agency and structure in modern era, identity in post modernity, Michel Foucault: Discourse theory, body centeredness and medicalization of modern life, discursive resistance.

Recommended Readings: 

  • Farganis, J. (1993). Readings in Social Theory, New York: Mc Graw- Hill,
  • Inc.Jones, P. (2003). Introducing Social Theory: Cambridge: Polity Press
  • Khalid, M. (1996).Sociological Theory: A Historical Perspective Karachi: Kifayat Academy, Educational Publishers
  • Kinloch, C.G. (1977). Sociological Theory; Its development and Major Paradigms, NewYork: Mc Graw- Hill, Inc.
  • Ritzer, G. (1992). Sociological Theory, New York: Mc Graw- Hill, Inc.
9. CGS-309: Gender, Peace, Security, and Conflict

Course Objectives

  • Understand peace, security, and conflict
  • Analyse conflict and its gendering
  • See how conflict affects men and women differently.
  • Analyse if peace always ensures security.
  • Analyse how women can be part of the peace building processes

Course Description:

The aim of this course is to determine whether peace, security and conflict are gendered. The course will also look at the evolution of conflict and its modus operandi over the years. Furthermore, the course will also analyse if gender relations change as a result of conflict and whether peace and security are intertwined. Using the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 the course will also look at the role of women in peace negotiations, peace building and rehabilitation processes.

Course Contents:

  • Definition and types of conflict
  • Evolution of conflict
  • Conflict: nature or nurture
  • What is peace? What is security?
  • Are peace and security intertwined?
  • Impact of conflict on gender
  • Gender relations as a result of conflict
  • Women’s role in peace building
  • UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace, and Security

Recommended Readings: 

  • Faizal, Farah and Rajagopalan, Swarna. (2005) Women, Security, South Asia: Clearing in the Thicket. New Delhi: Sage
  • Fisher, Erik A. and Sharp, Steven W. (2004) The Art of Managing Everyday Conflict: Understanding Emotions and Power Struggles. Westport, CT: Praeger
  • Hans, Asha and Betty A. Reardon (eds.). (2010)The Gender Imperative:  Human Security Vs State Security. New Delhi: Routledge
  • Haq, Farhat.  (2007) Militarism  and  Motherhood:  The Women  of  the Lashkar-i-Tayyabiain Pakistan. Signs, 32(4): 1023-1046
  • Hirschkind, Charles and Mahmood, Saba. (2002) Feminism, the Taliban, and Politics of Counter-Insurgency. Anthropological Quarterly, 75(2): pp. 339-354.
  • Leicht, Kevin T. and J.Craig Jenkins (Eds.). (2010). Handbook of Politics: State and Society in Global Perspective. (Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research). New York: Springer
  • Lwambo, Desiree. (2013) ‘Before the War, I was a Man’: Men and Masculinities in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Gender & Development, 21(1):47-66.
  • Olsson, Louise and Theodora-Ismene Gizelis (eds.). (2015) Implementing UN Security Council Resolution 1325. New York: Routledge
  • Reycher, Luc. (2006) Challenges of Peace Research. International Journal of Peace Studies, 11(1): 1-16.
  • Sa’ar, Amalia & Yahia-Younis, Taghreed. (2008) Masculinity in Crisis: The Case of Palestinians in Israel. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 35(3): 305-323
  • Sargent, Wendy M. (2016) Civilizing Peace Building: Twenty-First Century Global Politics. New York: Routledge
  • Sharma, Kalpana. (2008) Can there be Peace without Justice? Off Our Backs, 38(1): 21-23
  • Siddiqui, Farhan Hanif and Ahmar, Moonis. (2001) The Challenges of Conflict Resolution in 21st Century: Problems and Prospects. Karachi: Karachi University Publishers.
  • Snyder, Anna C. (2003). Setting the Agenda for Global Peace: Conflict and Consensus Building. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
  • Sweetman, Caroline. (2005). Gender, Peace Building, and Reconstruction. Oxford: Oxfam GB
  • UN Resolution 1325 (2000): The Text
10. CGS-310: Gender and Discourse

Course Objectives: 

  • Be able to “read” texts beyond what appears to the eye
  • Understand what is sexist language and if there is a need for gender neutral language
  • Analyse if men and women really speak differently
  • Be able to analyse how and why language becomes the field for contesting and negotiating power—or not
  • Critically evaluate how language creates and re-creates gender identities

Course Description:

The aim of this course is to understand the nexus between gender, discourse, and power by looking at various methods to analyse everyday conversations, texts, and discourses. In this course it will be examined that how language becomes a medium of contestation and negotiation for gender dynamics, identity construction, and cultural mediation. For example, “who says what?” or “who is validated to say what?” and “why?” At the end of this course the students will be expected to analyse everyday conversations, various discourses, literary, and media texts.

Course Contents:

  • What is discourse?
  • The difference between Discourse Analysis and Critical Discourse Analysis
  • The role of ideology in language
  • Meaning of power and power dynamics
  • The Genderlect  Theory
  • Do men and women speak differently?
  • Contested and Negotiable Meanings (proverbs, silences, humour, names)

Recommended Readings: 

  • Althusser, Louis. (1971). Ideology and the Ideological State Apparatuses. Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays. Ben Brewster (Trans.). Pp. 127-186. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  • Blommaert, Jan and Chris Bulcaen. (2000). Critical Discourse Analysis. Annual Review of Anthropology, 29, pp. 447-466.
  • Fairclough, Norman. (2015). Language and Power. (Third Edition). New York: Routledge.
  • Harrington, Kate, Lia Litosseliti, Helen Saunstson, Jane Sunderland (Eds.). (2008). Gender and Language  Research Methodologies.  New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Holmes, Janet, and Miriam Meyerhoff (Eds.) (2005) The Handbook of Language and Gender. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Hyland, Ken.   (ed).     (2013) Discourse Studies Reader. NewYork: Bloomsbury.
  • Lacoff, Robin Tolmach. (2004) Language and Women’s Place: Text and Commentaries. Mary Bucholtz (ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press
  • Mills, Sarah. (2008) Language and Sexism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  • Meinhof, Ulrike Haanna. (1997). Language and Masculinity. Sally Johnson and Ulrike Hanna Meinhof (eds). Malden: Blackwell.
  • Rahman, Tariq. (2015) Names: A Study of Personal Names, Identity, and Power in Pakistan
  • Siddiqui, Shahid. (2014) Language, Gender, and Power. Karachi: Oxford University Press
  • Tannen, Deborah. (1990) You Just Don’t Understand.  New York: Ballantine
  • Weatherall, Ann. (2002) Gender, Language and Discourse. New York: Routledge.
  • Wodak, Ruth    (ed.) (1997) Gender and Discourse. London: Sage Publications
11. CGS-311: Gender and Development Planning in Pakistan
11. CGS-311: Gender and Development Planning in Pakistan

Course Objectives: 

  • Provide theoretical, empirical, and methodological understanding of development planning
  • Recognise women’s right to identify their own needs and their families’ unmet needs for future development planning
  • Help students learn how to create a model development planning in the context of their needs and the needs of their communities

Course Description:

Pakistan is one of those countries where economic and social progress is hindered by under utilisation of human resources. This course critically assesses causes and factors that have hindered the pace of development in Pakistan. We would assess the role of internal actors (the government and the non-government agencies) and the role of external actors (international bodies and donor agencies) in setting the agenda for development planning and in selecting the techniques and strategies for implementing the plans. Students will be encouraged to look at Pakistan’s current situation in the backdrop of its colonial past and in the context of its fragile democratic institutions struggling under patriarchal and feudal social setup. The course, thus, would critically examine development paradigms and the category of woman and gender as central to development planning in Pakistan.

Course Contents:

Need for development planning

  • Theories of gender planning, gender sensitive indicators of development planning.

An overview of development planning in Pakistan

  • Development plans for rural and urban sector.
  • Needs of migrant workers and in-country migrants
  • Role of NGOs and CBOs in highlighting concerns of all genders for better planning
  • Role and impact of international bodies and NGOs in Pakistan’s development planning
  • Critical analysis of special schemes for gender and development in Pakistan
  • Gender sensitive project planning, designing, budgeting and evaluation
  • New directions in the study of gender development planning

Recommended Readings: 

  • Afsar, Rita. (2003). “Micro Finance and Women’s Empowerment: Insights from a Micro-level Sociological Study.” Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies, vol.10, no. 2 (2003): 129–52.
  • Aftab, Tahera . (2000). ‘Development and Women in Pakistan,’ in M. Porter and E. Judd (ed.)    Feminists Doing   Development: A Practical Critique. London: Zed Books, pp. 29–41.
  • Ayub, Nasreen. (1994) The Self Employed Women in Pakistan: A CaseStudy of the Self-Employed Women of Urban Informal Sector in Karachi.Karachi: Pakistan Association for Women’s Studies.
  • Jahan, Rounaq. (1995) The Elusive Agenda. London: Zed Books, 1995.
  • Junaid, Shahwar. (1991) The Role of Women in Development: A Perspective. Rawalpindi: Publishing Consultants.
  • Kazi, Shahnaz. (1999) ‘Gender Inequalities and Development in Pakistan, in Shahrukh Rafi Khan (ed.) Fifty Years of Pakistan’s Economy: Traditional Topics and Contemporary Concerns. Karachi, OUP. pp. 376–414.
  • Khan, Nighat Said. (1995) (ed.) Aspects of Women and Development. Lahore: ASR Publications.
  • Shahwar, Juniad. (1991)The role of women in development: Aperspective. Rawalpindi: Publishing Consultants
  • Syed, Tahira, Tahira Syed, Tehmina Roohi, and Parveen Ashraf. (2003) Gender, environment and development. Gilgit: Planning & Development Dept, Northern Areas
12. CGS-312: Gender & Literature

Course Objectives: 

  • Analyse the basic terms and concepts central to assess how social attitudes have shaped perceptions of women in literature and women’s self-perceptions.
  • Read critically, logically, and analytically women/gender elements presented in a text.
  • Analyse how women writers have depicted women’s experiences in order to challenge patriarchal discourse.

Course Description:

The concept of identity and self-knowledge has been central to many literatures throughout the ages, from mythical tales of the quest to contemporary coming-of-age romances. From psychological and philosophical points of view, we will explore – through readings, writings, and discussions – the idea of Otherness, how this idea helps in defining and rationalizing the questions of what it means to be a woman in the world of today – in/out of cultural contexts. Does the component of woman and gender have a meaningful and balanced representation in prose and poetry? Has literature been able to sensitize the society on the complexity of gender relations? Does self-consciousness of a woman always mean radical feminism; is man always responsible for the dismal condition of woman? Finally, through this course, the students would attempt to understand whether literature mirrors the mores and ways of life of its creators and of their times or it sets new directions by presenting a fresh vision.

Course Contents:

  • Why we study women, gender, and literature?
  • Overview of women writers and presentation of women and gender in literature: A case of West and of the subcontinent.
  • Literature in the national language: Selections- Poetry, Short Stories: Novel/biographies/autobiographies.
  • Depiction of gender roles in literature
  •  Literature in Regional Languages: Poetry; Short Story; Novel/biography/autobiography

Recommended Readings: 

  • Ahmad, R., ed.(1991). We Sinful Women. London: Women’s Press. Ahmed, Zia. 2009. ‘Pakistani feminist fiction and the empowerment of women,’ in Pakistaniaat: A journal of Pakistan Studis, vol. 1, no. 2, 91-102.
  • Bredi, Daniela.( 2010). “Women and male Urdu poets- a few examples.” Pakistan Journal of Women’s studies: Alam-e-Niswan, vol. 17, no. 1, 59-70.
  • Bredi, Daniela. (2004). “Of women, language, and literature: Begmati zubn,” in Pakistan, Journal of Women’s Studies: Alm-e-Niswan, vol. 11, no. 1, 21-39.
  • Chughtai, Ismat. (1990). The Quilt and Other Stories. Translated by T. Naqvi andS.Hameed. Delhi: Kali for Women.
  • Hameed, S. and S. Mehdi, eds. (1996). Parwaaz: A Selection of Urdu Short Storiesby Women. Delhi: Kali for Women.
  • Hussein, Aamer. (1999). (ed.), Hoops of Fire: Fifty Years of Fiction by Pakistani Women. London: Saqi Books.
  • Minault, Gail. (1994). ‘Other voices, other rooms: the view from the zenana,’ in NitaKumar (ed.) Women as subjects, South Asian Histories. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 108-124.
  • Moi, Toril. (1985). Sexual textual politics. London: Routledge.
  • Petievich, Carla. (2005). ‘Feminine Authorship and Urdu Poetic Tradition: Baharistan-i Naz vs. Tazkira-i rekhti,’ in Kathryn Hansen, David LelyveldandC. M. Naim (ed.) A Wilderness of Possibilities: Urdu Studies in Transnational Perspective, New Delhi: OUP.
  • Petievich, Carla. (1993). “The Feminine and Cultural Syncretism in Early Dakhani Poetry” The Annual of Urdu, 119–130.
  • Pritchett, Frances W. (1992). ‘Women, Death, and Fate, Sexual Politics in the Dastan-e-Amir Hamzah,’ in Sally J. M. Sutherland (ed.) Bridging Worlds,Studies on Women in South Asia. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 71–95.
  • Rehman, Samina. (1994) In Her Own Write: Short Stories by Women Writers in Pakistan. Lahore: ASR Publications.
  • Riaz, Fahmida.  Four walls and a black veil. Karachi: OUP.
  • Yaqin, Amina. (2006) Badan Darid (The body torn): Gender and Sexuality in Pakistani women’s poetry” in Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies: Alam-e- Niswan, vol. 13, no. 1, 45-65.
  • Yaqin, Amina. (2001). The intertextuality of women in Urdu literature: A Study of Fahmida Riaz and Kishwar Naheed. London: University of London.
13. CGS-313: Women, Sports and Physical Education

Course Objectives: 

  • Develop into successful, professional educators and contributing community members.
  • Analyses the individual women health fitness, resulting in a prescribed program to develop optimal levels of physical fitness, including aerobic fitness, strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, body composition, and lifetime sports considerations.
  • Analyses the psychological aspects as they influence performance in sport and physical activity

Course Description:

This course offers an investigation into structural and ideological issues that pertain to women’s involvement in sports and physical activities. This interdisciplinary course explores the relationships between health and gender under political, biological, economic, cultural and/or socially constructed influences. We will conduct a comprehensive overview of international health literature in public health, feminist cultural studies, sociology, anthropology, medicine, and popular literature. Topics include the issues concerning the body, media representations, social construction of gender/sex, feminist critiques of biomedicine, inscription of gender onto the body, gender inequities and difference in health epidemiology around the globe, gender differences in and through sports and physical education, gendered approaches and practices in healing, and others.

Students in the Physical Education program learn how to communicate to students of varying ages, abilities and backgrounds the intellectual, physiological and biomechanical concepts of physical activity. The Physical Education curriculum emphasizes the importance of understanding the role of family, community, and school in a student’s educational experience, and of psychological and sociological factors that can influence learning.

Course Contents:

  • Objectives of physical education for the elementary school girl child with applications of choice of activities, organization of programme, theory, and practices.
  • Personal physical fitness: Study the relationship between vigorous physical activity and individual wellbeing. Emphasis will be placed on an individualized analysis of women health fitness, resulting in a prescribed programme to develop optimal levels of physical fitness, including aerobic fitness, strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, body composition, and lifetime sports considerations.
  • Psychological Aspects of Sports and Physical Education.
  • Socio-cultural aspects of Physical Education and Sports.
  • A study of the theoretical, methodological, experimental, and applied foundations of sport and physical activity programs in society.
  • Applied issues included cultural, political, economical, legal, and educational aspects of sport and physical activity programmes related to women.
  • Historical and philosophical foundations of physical education and sport. The study of history of physical education and sport programmes, philosophical influences and issues related to the programs and applications of the knowledge base to current programmes.
  • Human Anatomy and Physiology: Study the basic aspects of human anatomy and physiology and their relationship to concepts in sport and physical activity.
  • Physiology of Human Exercise
  • Study the physiological effects of human exercise, training, and sport activities upon the women body; understanding and evaluation of physical fitness components, with consideration given also to areas including work, fatigue, nutrition, age, sex, and environment.
  • Nutrition for Women Performance: Study the women nutrition and its relationship to women performance. Consideration is given to nutrients—function, food source, health concerns and implications, and energy intake and expenditure. Special consideration is given to the following: body composition including weight gain and loss, competitive athletes, older adults, children and teens, pregnant women, disease risk, fluid and electrolyte balance, and specific sport activities.

Recommended Readings: 

  • Armour, Kathleen M. (1999) The Case for a Body-Focus in Education and Physical Education, Taylor & Francis, Tasmania, Australia.
  • Berg, Kris E. (2007) Essentials of Research Methods in Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, USA.
  • Birrell, Susan, Cole, Chery L. (1999) Feminisms and Figurational Sociological Contributions to Understandings of Sports, Physical Education and Sex/Gender, Physical Education Association, Sage Publications, London, UK.
  • Birrell, Susan, Cole, Cheryl L. (1994) Women, Sport and Culture, Human Kinetics, Illinois, USA.
  • Costa, D. Margaret, Guthrie, Sharon Ruth (1994) Women and Sport: Interdisciplinary Perspective, Human Kinetics, Illinois, USA.
  • Chandler, Tim, Timothy, John, Chandler, Lindsay (2002) Sport and Education the Concepts, Routledge, NY, USA.
  • Dunning, Eric (2003) Sport: Critical Concepts in Sociology, Taylor & Francis, Tasmania, Australia.
  • Goodsell, Willystine (2007) The Education of Women- Its Social Background and its Problems, Read Books, USA.
  • Green, Ken, Hardman, Ken (2004) Physical Education: Essential Issues, Sage Publications, London, UK.
  • Guttman, Allen (1991) Women’s Sports: A History, Columbia University Press, NY,USA.
  • Hargreaves, Jennifer (1994) Sporting Females: Critical Issues in the History and Sociology of Women’s Sports, Routledge, London, UK.
  • Henricks, Thomas S. (2003) Play Reconsidered: Sociological Perspectives on Human Expression, University of Illinois Press, Illinois, USA.
  • Houlihan, Barrie (2003) Sport and Society: A Student Introduction, Sage Publications, London, UK.
  • Jarvie, Grant (2006) Sports, Culture and Society: An Introduction, Routledge, NY, USA.
  • Kirk, David, Tinning, Richard (1990) Physical Education, Curriculum and Culture: Critical Issues, Routledge, NY, USA.
  • Laker, Anthony (2001) The Sociology and Physical Education: AnIntroduction, Routledge, NY, USA.
  • Lensky, J. Helen (1991). Out of Bounds: Women, Sport and Sexuality, The Women Press, Toronto, Canada.
  • Lensky, J. Helen (1991). Women, Sports and Physical Activity: Research & Bibliography, Fitness and Amateur Sports Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
  • Miguel, Juan, Balboa, Fernandez (1997) Critical Postmodernism in Human Movement, Physical Education, and sport, Sunny Press, NY,USA.
  • Penny, Dawn (2002) Gender and Physical Education: Contemporary Issues and Future Directions, Routledge, NY, USA.
  • Plowman, Sharon, Smith, Denise (2007) Exercise Physiology for Health, Fitness and Performance, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, USA.
  • Sparkes,  Andrew  (1992)  Research  in  Physical  Education  and  Sport: Exploring Alternative Vision, Routledge, NY,USA.
  • Steinhaus, Arthur H. (1963) Towards an Understanding of Health and Physical Education, W.C. Brown Co., Dubuque, USA.
  • Sullivan, Mary O. (2007) Research Quality in Physical and Sport Pedagogy, Taylor & Francis, Tasmania, Australia.
  • Verscheure, Ingrid (2007) The Gender Construction of Physical Education Content as the Result of the Differentiated Didactic, Taylor &Francis, Tasmania, Australia.
  • Zeigler, Earle F. (1975) Personalizing Physical Education and Sport Philosophy, Stipes, Illinois, USA
14. CGS-314: Economic, Political and Social Aspects of Women’s Lives

Course Objectives: 

  • Understand the basic social institutions and images of women as social constructor.
  • Understand the contemporary trends towards political and economical development.
  • Understand the various aspects of women’s lives and how women react in the social movements around the world.

Course Description:

This course offers the holistic and multidimensional aspects of women’s lives. Its major concerns are the issues related to the economic development and position of women in the global economy. It also analyses the political troubles and struggle for their rights and also offer the information about social characteristics and features of social institution, role of women in building up of social organizations and traditions and their responsibilities.

Course examines the historical and contemporary issues surrounding the diversity of women, race, socio-economic class and sexuality are presented as central theoretical concepts and as conditions of experience that affect all women and men, as well as being primary categories of social relations for us all.

Course Contents:

  • Women, gender, and global development
  • Women's roles and concerns in socio-economic and political development processes.
  • Positive and negative effects of colonization, post-colonial modernization, democratization, and capitalist and socialist development strategies on women.
  • Women, Social Institutions and Social Change: Twentieth-century trends in such institutions as the family, law, medicine, education, the economy, and politics.
  • Major issues and social problems related to women through an interdisciplinary analysis of social institutions and movements for social change as they affect women.
  • The social experience and cultural meaning of women's work in the first world and third world.
  • Self-identity and social change: Interdisciplinary readings in law, journalism, public policy, history, and self reflective literature.

Recommended Readings: 

  • Bandarage, A. (1997) Women Population and Global Crisis. A Political-Economic Analysis, Zed Books, London, UK.
  • Bhuimali, A. & Kumar, S.A. (2007) Women in the Face of Globalization. Serials Publications, Delhi, India.
  • Cheris Kramarae, Dale, Spender (eds) (2000) Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global Women Issues and knowledge, Routledge, Volume 3, New York.
  • Devasia, L & Devasia, V.V. (2004) Empowering Women for Sustainable Development., Ashish Publishing House, Delhi, India.
  • Ella, L. Bell, Ella, L. J. Edmondson, Bell, Stella, M. Nkomo (2003) Our Separate Ways: Black and White Women and the Struggle for Professional Identity, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
  • Eleanor, Abdella, Marsha, Doumato, Pripstein , Posuseny (2003) Women and Globalization in the Arab Middle East: Gender, Economy and Society, Lynne Rienner Publishers, London, UK.
  • Harish (1991) Economic Development and Role of Indian Women, Commonwealth Publisher, Delhi, India.
  • Ingenta, Connect, Pro, Quest, Bell & Howell (1998) The Journal o fDevelopment Studies, University of Michigan, USA.
  • Khan, N.S., R. Saigol, & A.S, Zia (eds) (1995) Aspects of Women and Development, ASR Publications, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Lipi, Ghosh. Ishita, Mukhopadhyay. & Suchandra, Chakrabarty (2006) Women A Cross Asia Issues of Identities, Gyan Publishing House, New Delhi , India.
  • Miriam, E. David (2003) Personal and Political: Feminisms, Sociology and Family Lives, Trentham Books, United Kingdom.
  • Nagendra, S. (2006) Women’s Rights, ABD Publishers, Jaipur, India. Nagedra, S. (2008) Women’s Role in Modern World. ABD Publishers, Jaipur, India.
  • Narasaiah, M.L. (2006) Women and Development, Discovery Publishing House, Delhi, India.
  • Norman, Stockman, Norman, Bonney, Xuewen, Sheng, (1995) Women’sWork in East and West: The Dual Burden of Employment and Family Life M.E. Sharpe Publishers, New York, USA.
  • Nussbaum, M. C. (2000) Women and Human Development: The Capabilities Approach, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Patel, R. (1991) Socio-Economic Political Status and Women and Law in Pakistan, Faiza Publishers, Karachi, Pakistan.
  • Sen, Kumar Amartya, & Sen, Amartya. (2001) Development as Freedom, Oxford University Press UK.
  • Paxton, P. & Hughes, M.M. (2007) Women, Politics and Power: A Global Perspective, Pine Forge Press, Los Angeles, USA.
  • Sunny, Dolly (2003) Women in Leading Professions in Middle East, Serials Publications, New Delhi, India.
  • Sandole, Staroste, Anita, M. Taylor (2002) Women in Transition: Between Socialism and Capitalism, Greenwood Publishing Group, London, UK.
  • Llewelyn, Susan P. Llewelyn, Sue, Osborne Kate. (1990) Women’s Lives, RoutledgeNew York, USA.
  • Tiwari, S. & Tiwari, A. (2007) Women Entrepreneurship and Economic Development, Discovery Publishing House, Delhi, India.
  • Vesna, Nikolic, V. Ristanovic, Nikolic (2007) Social Change, Gender, and Violence: Post-Communist and War Effected Societies, Springer, NewYork, USA.
  • Wol, S. & Banerji, S. (2007) Women in Developing World, Sarup, Delhi, India.
15. CGS-315: Gender and Art

Course Objectives: 

  • Explore social, political, aesthetic, and economic factors that influence art and the artists.
  • Gain insight of how gender and art relate.
  • Develop a gendered perspective of art for the artist, the viewer, and the art critic.

Course Description:

This course examines how art reflects the current images of society and how art can present a vision for the future. Drawing upon feminist theories of aesthetics, this course acknowledges that art includes all forms of art-literature, film, architecture, music, theatre, and the visual arts. This course addresses socio-cultural factors influencing roles of women and men in arts, culture, and society. This course, however, has limited itself to the study of visual arts, crafts, and stage performances. We would consider how gender is relevant to the creation of art as it represents social structures. It would help to think about forms and representations of masculinity and femininity from the perspective of ‘male gaze’ and ‘female gaze’ in sacred and secular categories of art.

Course Contents:

  • Art, women and gender: social and cultural perspectives.
  • The production of art: the reception of art.
  • Perception, portrayal, and presentation of gender, sexual imagery, and female sensibility.
  • Gendered classification of art- art on canvass, art on textiles; wall decorations and needlework; stage performances and art of puppetry; the art of pottery and the art of ceramics.
  • Folk art and gender, its social and cultural frame.
  • Selected case studies of women painters, performing artists, and craftswomen.

Recommended Readings: 

  • Afzal-Khan, Fawzia. 2001 “Exposed by Pakistani Street Theatre: the unholy alliance of Post-modern Capitalism, patriarchy, and fundamentalism.” Pakistan Journal of Women’s studies: Alma-e-Niswan, vol. 8, nos. 1&2, 57-76.
  • Dadi, Iftikhar. (2010) Modernism and the Art of Muslim South Asia, Chapel Hill: University of North California Press.
  • Ecker, G. 1985. Feminist Aesthetics. London: The Women’s Press.
  • Hashmi, Salima. (2009) Hanging Fire: Contemporary art from Pakistan, London: Yale University Press.
  • Hashmi, Salima. 2002. Unveiling the Visible: Lives and Works of Women Artists in Pakistan, Action Aid Pakistan.
  • Islam, Mazharul. (1985) Folklore, the pulse of the people: in the context of Indic folklore, New Delhi: Concept.
  • Maskiell M. 1999. "Embroidering the Past: Phulkari Textiles and Gendered work as `Tradition' and `Heritage' in Colonial and Contemporary Punjab". The Journal of Asian Studies. 58 (2): 361-89.
  • Mirza, Shaheen Nana. 1990. Sindhi Embroidery and Blocks. Karachi: Department of Culture & Tourism, Govt. of Sindh.
  • Paine,  Sheila.  2001.  Embroidery  from  India  and  Pakistan. London: British Museum Press.
  • Perry, Gillian. 1999. Gender and Art. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Pollock, Griselda. (1988) Vision and Difference: Femininity, Feminism and the Histories of Art, London: Routledge
  • Reckitt, Helena, and Peggy Phelan. 2001. Art and feminism. London: Phaidon.
  • Saeed, Fouzia. 1991. Women in folk theatre. Islamabad: Lok Virsa.
  • Whiles, Virginia. (2010) Art and Polemic in Pakistan: Cultural Politics and Tradition in Contemporary Miniature Painting, London: Tauris Academic Studies.
  • Wilkinson-Weber, Clare M. 2001. “Gender, handicrafts, and development in Pakistan: A critical Review.” Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies: Alam-e-Niswan, vol. 8, nos. 1&2, 91-103.
  • Wilkinson-Weber, Clare M. 1999. Embroidering lives women's work and skill in the Lucknow embroidery industry. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press.
  • Zaman, Niaz. 2004. The Art of Kantha Embroidery. Dhaka: The University Press.
  • Smith, Dan &Skjelsbaek, Inger (2001) Gender, peace and conflict, International Peace Research Institute, USA.
  • Sweetman, Caroline. (2001) Gender, Development, and Humanitarian Work, Oxfam, UK.
  • Wendy, M. Sargent (2007) Civilizing Peace Building Twenty-first Century Global Politics, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, USA.
  • Staeheli, L.A,Kofman,E.& Peake, L.J. (eds) (2004) Mapping Women, Making Politics: Feminist Perspectives on Political Geography, Routledge New York, USA.
  • Yuval, DavisN. & Werbser, P. (eds) (1999), Women, Citizenship and Difference. Zed Books, London, UK
16. CGS-316: Logic and Critical Thinking

Course objectives

  • To enable students to discern valid and invalid arguments and to identify premises and conclusions of arguments
  • To understand the structure and nature of inductive arguments
  • To identify both formal and informal fallacies.

Course Description: 

The first section of this course will introduce basic forms of arguments, argument fallacies, and elements of reasoning, analysis and thought mapping. The aim will be to enable students to think and write critically. Thus, this will be a ‘tool’ to be used and applied in their chosen fields of research. It will equip students to understand and critically evaluate any subject matter they are presented with. It will enable them to think and evaluate others’ thinking more effectively. This course will also explore ways in which critical thinking skills have been applied by classical and contemporary thinkers. Students will study both logic and critical thinking since both are coordinated intellectual skills and not separate and independent.

The primary aim of this course is to teach students the essential skills of analysing, evaluating, and constructing arguments, and to develop their ability to apply these in both thinking and writing. In this context, the course will cover some of the essential notions and methods of deductive logic, argument fallacies and causal reasoning. At another level, the course will also comprehensively cover how information and ideas can be deconstructed, carefully and logically from multiple perspectives.

Course Contents:

  • Analysis, evaluation and construction of arguments
  • Deductive and inductive reasoning
  • Argument fallacies
  • Causal reasoning
  • Elements of reasoning

Recommended Readings: 

Annette, T., & Donna , H. W. (2000). The Structure of Argument. New York: Bedford/ St. Martin’s.

Bassham, G., Irwin, W., Henry , N., & James M. , W. (2008). Critical Thinking: A Student's Introduction. McGraw Hill.: New York: .

Brooke, N. M., & Richard, P. (2000). Critical Thinking (Vol. 9th edition). California State University, Chico.

Harry J. , G. (2010). Introduction to Logic (Vol. 2nd Edition). London: Routledge.

Helen , B. M. (1999). Roots of Wisdom (Vol. 2nd edition). Wadsworth, Inc.

Howard, K., & Paul, T. (1995). Logic and Philosophy: A Modern Introduction (Vol. 7th Edition). Wadsworth Publishing.

Peter, A. (2004). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts.

Robert J. , F., & Walter , S.-A. (2013). Understanding Arguments: An Introduction to Informal Logic (Vol. 8th Edition). Belmont USA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Steven, S. (1991). An Introduction to Critical Thinking.William, V. (2000). Reading and Writing Short Arguments. California: Mayfield Publication.

17. CGS-317: Community Development

Course Objectives: 

  • To familiarize students with key approaches to gender issues in community development.
  • To enable an understanding of gender as a cross cutting approach that can address issues of development as well as human rights.
  • To equip students to systematically analyse gender-disaggregated data and disseminate it for policy formulation and planning.

Course Description:  

This course will provide students grounding in the theory and practice of gender sensitive community development, particularly in the context of Pakistan.

The course has four main components. The first comprises of an analysis of the concept of community development, its various definitions, principles and processes. This is followed by project management techniques and key concepts necessary for understanding project management phases. Special focus is on successful project proposal writing. The third component is geared towards providing the students a framework for problems and processes within Pakistan. This is done by examining the projects being carried out in Pakistan for women and identifying community development approaches and initiatives that have proven to be successful. The fourth component comprises of negative outcomes of unsustainable development policies. Specifically, the course will focus on the question of development as ‘catching up’ versus human and gender development; the five key approaches: welfare approach, equity approach, anti-poverty approach, efficiency approach and empowerment approach.

Course Contents:

  • Principles, processes and definitions of community development.
  • Project management techniques and key concepts
  • Analysis of gender sensitive projects in Pakistan
  • Consequences and impacts of unsustainable development practices
  • Key approaches in community development

Recommended Readings: 

  • Amy, L. (1997) Gender, Development and Urban Social Change: Women's Community Action in Global Cities." . World Development. 25(8): 1205-1223.
  • Elson, D. (1991) Male bias in the development process: An overview" In Male Bias in the Development Process". Manchester.
  • Khandker, S. R., Khalily, B., Khan, Z., & Khandker, S. R. (1995) Grameen Bank : performance and sustainability, Internal Migration of Women in Developing Countries: An Overview." Internal Migration of Women in Developing Countries: Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Meeting on the Feminization of Internal Migrati. New York: United Nations: World Bank.
  • Monique, C. (1997) A Road Map for Measuring Development Impact: A woman's and family perspective. Review of Social Economy 55(2): 243-249.
  • Nuket, K. (1991) Bringing Women In: Women's Issues in International Development Programs.
  • Saba , G. K. (2001) Women's Work and Empowerment Issue in an Era . Pakistan Institute of Labour Education and Research.
  • Shahrukh , R. K., & Nouman, N. (1996) Rethinking Security, Rethinking Development: An Anthropology of Papers from the Third Annual South Asian NGO Summit. Islamabad: Sustainable Development Policy Institute.
  • Somaratne, W. (2005) Gender and Development (GAD) in South Asia: New Policy and Strategic Options. Sustainable Development: Bridging the Research Policy Gaps in Southers Context, Oxford University Press.
  • Supporting Women's Work Around the World. (1995) New York: The Feminist Press at the City University of New York.
  • (2007). Millennium Development Goals Report. United Nations .
18. CGS-318: Feminization of Poverty

Course Objectives: 

  • To develop students’ understanding of the term ‘feminization of poverty’.
  • To introduce students to contemporary literature from across the disciplines on the subject.
  • To explore the social changes occurring due to the feminization of poverty in Pakistan along with socio-political responses to these changes in different regions of Pakistan.

Course description:

This course will introduce students to contemporary literature on the feminization of poverty, beginning from an understanding of the term itself and leading into the various manifestations of ‘feminization of poverty’ around the world. The latter half of the course will focus on Pakistan, with a view to develop a deeper understanding of the social and economic disparities between and within different regions and social groups within the country.

This course will draw upon the students’ own knowledge regarding their respective regions and encourage them to explore/revisit their existing knowledge by playing closer attention to the obvious and subtle changes taking place in the country’s major urban centers as well as the peripheries. The course will encourage students to produce socially responsible knowledge and deepen their theoretical understanding of capitalism and its effects on the local and global levels.

This course will interest students pursuing further studies in Development Studies, International Political Economy, and socially-engaged research in any of the social sciences.

Course contents:

  • Introduction to the term ‘feminization of poverty’
  • Introduction to basic concepts of International Political Economy
  • Understanding capitalism as a mode of production and constitutive of social relations
  • Exploring links between capitalism and gender
  • Understanding the institutionalized/structural production of poverty
  • Understanding the concept of uneven development
  • Tracing the rise of feminization of poverty to particular junctures in the development of global capitalism
  • Tracing the impacts of feminism on mainstream knowledge production in the fields of political economy, development studies, and other related fields.
  • Locating ‘feminization of poverty’ in Pakistan
  • Case studies of female-headed households, areas experiencing large scale migrations (internal and external)

Recommended Readings:

  • Chant, S. H. (2007). Gender, Generation and Poverty: Exploring the Feminisation of Poverty In: Africa, Asia and Latin America. Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Chang, K. A. & Ling, L.H.M. (2000) Globalization and its Intimate Other: Filipina domestic workers in Hong Kong. In M. H. Marchand and A. S. Runyan (Eds.), Gender and Global Restructuring: Sightings, Sites, and Resistances (pp. 27-43). Psychology Press.
  • McLanahan S.S., Kelly E.L. (2006) The Feminization of Poverty. In: Handbook of the Sociology of Gender. Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research. Springer, Boston, MA.
  • Medeiros, M. and Costa, J. (2011). The feminization of poverty: a widespread phenomenon? In Chant, S. H. (Ed.). The International Handbook of Gender and Poverty: Concepts, Research, Policy. Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Mies, M. (2014) Understanding Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale: Women in the International Division of Labour. Zed Books. (Originally published 1986)
  • Siegmann, K. A. (2008). The Trade and Gender Interface: A Perspective from Pakistan. In M. Kugelman & R.M. Hathaway (Eds.), Hard Sell: Attaining Pakistani Competitiveness in Global Trade. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, pp. 99-118.
  • Siegmann, K. A., & Schiphorst, F. (2016). Understanding the Globalizing Precariat: From Informal Sector to Precarious Pork. Progress in Development Studies, 16(2), 111–123. doi:10.1177/1464993415623118
19. CGS-319: Gender and Pakistani Culture

The aim of this course is to contextualize various cultural traditions and practices within Pakistani society by using anthropological studies. The contextualization will follow historical rationale of several cultural forms and will then look into their contemporary relevance. The insight into such traditions and practices will enable the students to illuminate how social construction of gender in Pakistan is intricately linked to cultural dynamics prevailing in the country.  The course will also link prior knowledge of gender construction and other social phenomena to the embedded cultures in the society.

Course Objectives: 

  • To contextualize various cultures in Pakistan, why and how different forms of cultural practices exist
  • To critically examine various cultural forms and how they do gendering of the society
  • To develop a nuanced approach of understanding gendered dynamics culturally gestated in the context of Pakistan

Course Content:

  • Nature of marriages and influences on gender relations
  • Traditional customs and customary laws of the society
  • Piety, honor and aspirations of femininity
  • Construction of masculinity and other sexualities
  • Impact of kinships and biraderis on gender relations
  • Families and intra familial relations
  • Folk traditions on gender construction
  • Purdah and gendered spaces
  • Shrines and other religious spaces of gendering

Recommended Readings

  • Ahmad, S. (1977) Class and Power in a Punjabi Village. Lahore: Punjabi Adbi Markaz.
  • Ahmed, A. S. (1986) Pakistan Society: Islam, Ethnicity and Leadership in South Asia
  • Alavi, H. A. (1972) Kinship in West Punjab Villages. Contributions to Indian Sociology (New Series) 6: 1-27
  • Alvi, A. (2013) Concealment and Revealment: The Muslim Veil in Context, Current Anthropology 54(2) 177-199
  • Barth, F. (1959) Segmentary Opposition and the Theory of Games: A Study of Pathan Organization. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 89, 5-21
  • Chaudhry, M. A. (2009) Puberty Stress as a Social Phenomenon: A Case Study of Pakistani Punjab. Scrutiny: A Journal of International and Pakistan Studies. Volume 3. National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan
  • Chaudhary, M. A. (2011) A Woman's Marriage to the Quran. An Anthropological Perspective from Pakistan. Anthropos 106: 41 1 – 422
  • Chaudhry, M. A. (2014) Interpreting Honor Crimes in Pakistan: The Case Studies of the Pukhtun and the Punjabi Societies. Anthropos, Bd. 109, H. 1, pp. 196-206
  • Eglar, Z. (1960) A Punjabi Village in Pakistan. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Ibbetson, Memorandum on Ethnological Inquiry in the Punjab, p. 11
  • Grima, B. (2004) The Performance of Emotion among Paxtun Women, Karachi: Oxford University Press
  • Lévi-Strauss, C. (1967) Structural Anthropology. Anchor Books Doubleday & Company, Inc. New York
  • O’ Brien, J. (2012) The Unconquered People: The Liberation Journey of an Oppressed Caste. Oxford University Press, Karachi
  • Patel,R. (1979) Women and Law in Pakistan, Faiza Publishers, Karachi
20. CGS-320: Feminism and Films  

Course Description:

This course will explore the relationships between feminism, feminist theory, film theory and feminist filmmaking. It will bring forth issues of representations, kind of representations of women that mainstream film construct, how these representations function within wider social discourses and power structures. It will look at how films through its representations work to construct particular subject positions for its viewers. This will also be done in view of studying genres and how they structure these positions differently through their specific play of realism, ideology and fantasy. This will also raise questions as how far feminist film makers can intervene in film practices, what such intervention would look like.

Course Objectives: 

  • To understand feminist film theory, its debates and methods
  • Apply this understanding in the critical evaluation between mainstream and feminist film making and the political and conceptual and aesthetic debates underlying this relationship
  • Apply these conceptual and methodological understandings in a close analysis of a range of specific film texts

Course Content:

  • Theorizing mainstream films
  • Male gaze and female spectators
  • Fantasy and body genres
  • Mainstream cinema
  • ‘Counter’ cinema
  • ‘Western’ Film making before the Second Wave
  • ‘Western’ Post-feminist films
  • Contemporary Pakistani films from the feminist perspective
  • Feminist films in Pakistan
  • Other cinemas from the feminist perspective

Recommended Readings:

  • Brusndon, C. (ed) (1986) Films for Women, London: British Film Institute
  • Douglas, K. (2000) Media Spectacles, London: Routeledge
  • Hall, S. (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices, London: Sage Publications
  • Humm, M. (1997) Feminism and Film, Edinburgh University Press
  • Jones, A. (ed) (2002) The Feminism and Visual Culture Reader, London and New York: Routeledge
  • Macdonald, M. (1995) Representing Women: Myths of Femininity in the Popular Media
  • Thornham, S. (1997) Passionate Detachments: An Introduction to Feminist Film Theory, Arnold
  • Thornham, S. (1999) Feminist Film Theory: A Reader, New York University Press

General / Interdisciplinary Courses

1. Introduction to Gender Studies

Course description: 

This course will introduce students to Gender Studies as an academic discipline. It will trace the history of the discipline as it emerged in the West, as well as its emergence in Pakistan. Students will be introduced to the discipline and its distinguishing features, both in content and pedagogy. Through exposure to the former and current debates present in academic texts, interactive and experiential learning, this course will focus on the ways that sex and gender manifest itself in social, cultural, and political contexts. Students will become acquainted with many of the critical questions and concepts feminist thought has developed as tools for the study of gendered experiences. Thus, the course will enable students in developing critical understanding of gender issues and using the gendered lens for all social sciences.

Course Objectives: 

  • To introduce students to the history of gender studies as an academic discipline in Pakistan and in the West.
  • To familiarize students with the major debates within gender studies.
  • To introduce key concepts and terms used in gender studies.
  • To identify the main features that distinguishes gender studies from other social science disciplines.

Course Learning Outcomes: 

After completing the course, the students will be able to:

  • Analyse basic terms and concepts central to Gender Studies, including differences between sex and gender, sexuality, feminism, patriarchy, and oppression.
  • Identify and understand a variety of methods of studying gender as a social institution.
  • Explore dynamics of power relations in the lives of individuals, groups and cultures in multiple settings
  • Relate the concepts and theories of Gender Studies to their own individual life experiences

Course Contents: 

Unit 01: Introduction 

Significance of the discipline

Historical background and theories.

Unit 02: Socialization 

Social construct of gender

Socialization, gender roles and gender stereotypes.

Unit 03: The Politics of Gender 

The micro-politics of Gender

Gender and the State Gender and equality.

Unit 04: Embodiment and Sexualities 

Body image and representation

Issues of self-image and self-esteem

Unit 05: Gender and Sexual binary 

Feminist perspectives on femininity, masculinity, gender performativity and sexual identity.

Unit 06: Oppression and Violence against women 

Patriarchy and other systems of oppression Imperialism, colonialism, sexism, and racism

Unit 07: Gender based violence 

Definition of GBV

Theories and forms of violence.

Unit 08: Feminism and Gender in the Developing World 

Feminist perspectives on gender roles in the developing world

Recommended Readings:

  • Beauvoir, Simone de. 1974. The Second Sex. New York, NY: Vintage Books.
  • Bowles, G. and Renate, K. 1983. Theories of Women's Studies. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  • Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of 
  • Identity. New York: Routledge.
  • Cranny-Francis, Anne. 2003. Gender Studies: Terms and Debates. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Davis, Kathy, Mary Evans, and Judith Lorber. 2006. Handbook of Gender and Women's Studies. London: Sage.
  • Essed, Philomena, David Theo Goldberg, and Audrey Lynn Kobayashi. 2005. A Companion to Gender Studies. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
  • Grewal, Inderpal, and Caren Kaplan. 2006. An Introduction to Women's Studies: Gender in a Transnational World. Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
  • Gunew, Sneja. 1992. A Reader in Feminist Knowledge. London:
  • Hobson, B.; Lewis, J. & Siims, B. 2002. Contested Concepts in Gender and Social Politics. Edward Elgar Publishing. Routledge.
  • Mananzan, Sr. Mary John. 1995. “Women’s Studies in the Philippines,” in Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 35-42.
  • Menon, N. 2012. Seeing Like A Feminist. Delhi: Penguin Books, India.
  • Mohan, Vijayalakshmi Rama & D. Padmavathi. 1995. “Integration of women concerns in various disciplines,” in Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies, vol. 2, no. 2, 69-73.
  • Picher, J. and Whelehan, I. 2017. 50 Key Concepts in Gender Studies. Virginia: SAGE. (First published 2004).
  • Robinson, Victoria, and Diane Richardson. 2008. Introducing Gender and Women's Studies. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Vivar, M.T.H. 2016. Framing Intersectionality: Debates on a multi-faceted debate in Gender Studies. New York: Routledge.

(Standardized courses open to for BS Gender Studies students) (all approved Inter disciplinary course) (Please refer to agenda item three “Consideration of the Recommendations of School of Economics for approval of Common Compulsory and General Courses  (6-Common Compulsory and 22-General Courses) for all  BS (4-years) programs of Social Sciences. See appendix-A

  • Introduction to Anthropology
  • Fundamentals of Economics
  • Fundamentals of Education
  • Introduction to History
  • Introduction to Biology
  • Introduction to Commerce
  • Principles of Management
  • Principles of Psychology
  • Introduction to Library Sciences
  • Introduction to Law
  • Introduction to International Relations
  • Introduction to Archaeology
  • Introduction to Economy of Pakistan
  • Introduction to Defence & Strategic Studies
  • Introduction to History of South Asia
  • Introduction to the History of Muslim Civilization
  • Introduction to Business
  • Principles of Accounting
  • Introduction to Sociology
  • Foundations of Social Work
  • Introduction to Political Science

Language Non-English)*

*subject to availability of teacher

Compulsory Courses

1. Islamic Studies / Ethics (Optional for non-Muslim students)
2. Pakistan Studies
3. Computer Skills for Social Sciences
4. English-I (Functional English)
5. English II (Communication Skills)
6. English-III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills)
7. English-IV

(All above are as per QAU standardized courses for all Social Sciences students)

As per HEC revised curriculum (2017) students can opt for either Math I or Stat I. Course outlines for both are given below:

8. Introduction to Mathematics (Math-I)


To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in Mathematics.


After completion of this course the student should be able to:

  • Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics;
  • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines;
  • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains;



Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers, Introduction to sets, set operations, functions, types of functions. Matrices: Introduction to matrices, types of matrices, inverse of matrices, determinants, system of linear equations, Cramer's rule. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations, nature of roots of quadratic equations, equations reducible to quadratic equations. Sequence and Series: Arithmetic, geometric and harmonic progressions. Permutation and combinations: introduction to permutation and combinations, Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry, trigonometric identities. Graphs: Graph of straight line, circle and trigonometric functions,


Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics relationship of statistics with social science, characteristics statistics, limitations of statistics and main division of stat Frequency distribution; Organisation of data, array, ungrouped and grouped data, types of frequency series, individual discrete and continuous series, tally sheet method, presentation of the frequency distribution. bar frequency diagram histogram, frequency polygon, cumulative frequency curve. Measures of central tendency Mean medium and modes, quartiles, deciles and percentiles. Measure of dispersion: Range, inter quartile deviation mean deviation standard deviation, variance, moments, skewness and kurtosis.

Recommended Readings:

  • Swokowski. E. W., 'Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonomet latest Edition.
  • Kaufmann. J. E., 'College Algebra and Trigonometry, PWS-Kent Company, Boston, Latest Edition.
  • Walpolet R. E., 'Introduction of Statistics', Prentice Hall, Latest Edition.
  • Wilcox, R, R., 'Statistics for The Social Sciences.

* Developed by HEC for students not majoring in mathematics and approved by the department of Mathematics QAU by the department of Sociology.

9. Introduction to Statistics (Stat-I)

What is Statistics?

Definition of Statistics, Population, sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics, Observations, Data, Discrete and continuous variables, Errors of measurement, Significant digits, Rounding of a Number, Collection of primary and secondary data, Sources, Editing of Data. Exercises.

Presentation of Data

Introduction, basic principles of classification and Tabulation, Constructing of a frequency distribution, Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution, Diagrams, Graphs and their Construction, Bar charts, Pie chart, Histogram, Frequency polygon and Frequency curve, Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive, Historigram, Ogive for Discrete Variable. Types of frequency curves. Exercises.

Measures of Central Tendency

Introduction, Different types of Averages, Quantiles, The Mode, Empirical Relation between Mean, Median and mode, Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. properties of Good Average, Box and Whisker Plot, Stem and Leaf Display, definition of outliers and their detection. Exercises.

Measures of Dispersion

Introduction, Absolute and relative measures, Range, The semi-Inter-quartile Range, The Mean Deviation, The Variance and standard deviation, Change of origin and scale, Interpretation of the standard Deviation, Coefficient of variation, Properties of variance and standard Deviation, Standardized variables, Moments and Moments ratios. Exercises.

Probability and Probability Distributions.

Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial, Poisson and Normal Distribution. Exercises

Sampling and Sampling Distributions

Introduction, sample design and sampling frame, bias, sampling and non sampling errors, sampling with and without replacement, probability and non-probability sampling, Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion, Difference of means and proportions. Exercises.

Hypothesis Testing

Introduction, Statistical problem, null and alternative hypothesis, Type-I and Type-II errors, level of significance, Test statistics, acceptance and rejection regions, general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Exercises.

Testing of Hypothesis- Single Population

Introduction, Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples, Exercises

Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations

Introduction, Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples, Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Exercises

Testing of Hypothesis-Independence of Attributes

Introduction, Contingency Tables, Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. Exercises.

Regression and Correlation

Introduction, cause and effect relationships, examples, simple linear regression, estimation of parameters and their interpretation. r and R2. Correlation. Coefficient of linear correlation, its estimation and interpretation. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. Examples

Recommended Readings:

  • Walpole, R. E. 1982. “Introduction to Statistics”, 3rd Ed., Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. New York.
  • Muhammad, F. 2005. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”, Kitab Markaz, Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad.
10. CGS-111: Violence against women (VAW)

Course Objective:

  • To explore the prevalence, causes and effects of violence against women
  • To educate the students to be conscious of cycle and signs of domestic violence
  • To understand the nature of violence against women in Pakistan
  • Assess national and global programmatic and policy responses to violence against women

Course Description:

With the help of theories of violence against women, this course explores the nature, causes, and spread of violence against women and its impact on gender relations. The course develops a holistic understanding of actual violence and threats of violence, encompassing all forms of violence – physical, emotional, and psychological –and critically examines how and why constitutional guarantees and religious assurances have not succeeded in protecting women’s human rights. The course would investigate diverse connections between poverty, lack of education and ill-health on violence against women. The course, thus, would prepare the students to comprehend the extent and forms of violence against women existing locally and globally. The class discussions, drawing upon students’ experiences and observations would assist in the exploration of practical measures for eliminating violence against women.

Course Contents:


  • Meaning and definition and forms of violence
  • Cultural determinants of violence
  • Patriarchal parameters of violence
  • International and local perspective on historical and contemporary forms of violence

Theories of violence

  • Scale and social dimension of violence against women
  • Statistics on violence against women
  • Evolutionary psychology, political and sociological theories, political and sociological theories
  • Harris’s Group socialization theory, organic and brain based data, antisocial personality disorder, genetics

Women and violence

  • South Asian perspective
  • Causes and impacts of violence
  • Social acceptance of violence in patriarchal culture

Violence in the context of Pakistan

  • Prevalence of VAW in Pakistani society
  • An overview of male-dominated patterns of socio-religious paradigms

Role of the State in the protection of human rights abuse in Pakistan

  • Women’s rights Acts

Knowledge and information in creating violence against women

  • Role of text books, electronic and social media in promoting violence

Forms of Violence against Women

  • Domestic, community and state violence
  • Rape, incest, eve teasing, trafficking, prostitution, murder, infanticide, foeticide, marital violence, acid throwing burning
  • Violence in police stations, violence in custody, Violence during armed conflict
  • Women IDPs, customs-based violence, state violence
  • Harassment at work place –use of language of authority
  • Psychological violence causing stress

Issues related to Violence

  • Statistics, case studies of domestic violence.
  • Honour Killing: issues of virginity and female chastity and male control over female bodies and sexuality, wife beating

Strategies, implications and solutions

  • International conferences
  • Women’s activism, introduction and teaching of Women and Gender Studies.

Recommended Readings:

  • Abdo, Nahla (2006) “Sexual violence. Patriarchy and the State: Women in Israel. ”Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies: Alam-e-Niswan, vol. 13, No. 2, 39-63
  • Coomaraswamy, Radhika, and Nimanthi Perera-Rajasingham (2008) Constellations of Violence: Feminist Interventions in South Asia. New Delhi: Women Unlimited
  • Davies, Miranda (1994) Women and Violence: Realities and Responses Worldwide. London: Zed Books
  • Firoze, Fawzia Karim, Rina Roy, Fayazuddin Ahmad, and Mohammad Gholam Rabbani. (2007) Landmark Judgements on Violence Against Women of Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. Dhaka: Manusher Janno Foundation
  • Finney Hayward, Ruth (2000) Breaking the Earthenware Jar: Lessons from South Asia to End Violence Against Women and Girls. Kathmandu, Nepal: UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia
  • Goonesekere, Savitri (2004) Violence, Law, and Women's rights in South Asia. New Delhi: Sage Publications
  • Heinemann, Elizabeth D. (2011) Sexual violence in Conflict Zones: From the Ancient World to the Era of Human Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press
  • Idriss, Mohammad Mazher, and Tahir Abbas (2011) Honour, Violence, Women and Islam. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge
  • Jayawardena, Kumari, and Malathi de Alwis (1996) Embodied Violence: Communalising Women's Sexuality in South Asia. London: Zed Books
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